Engineering Conversions Constants

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The following tables provide conversion constants for length, area, volumes, liquid measures, weights measures and more.

Abbreviations may stand for singular or plural usage
cm = centimeter cu. = cubic ft. = foot gal. = gallon (US)
g. = gram Imp. = Imperial in. = inch kg. = kilogram
km. = kilometer l. = liter lb. = pound m. = meter
mi. = mile oz. = ounce qt. = quart std. = standard
US = United States yd. = yard

LENGTH MEASURES

  Common Usage
  
Reciprocal Value
1 ft. = 12 in..
1 in. = 0.0833 ft.
1 yd. = 3 ft.
1 ft. = 0.3333 yd.
1 rod = 5.5000 yd.
1 yd. = 0.1818 rods
1 furlong = 40 rods
1 rod = 0.0250 furlongs
1 mile = 8 furlongs
1 furlong = 0.1250 mi.
1 mi. = 5,280 ft.
1 ft. = 0.000189 mi.
1 mi. = 1,760 yd.
1 yd. = 0.000568 mi.
1 fathom = 6 ft.
1 ft. = 0.1667 fathom
120 fathoms = 1 cable
1 cable = 0.00833 fathoms
1 league = 3 mi.
1 mi. = 0.3333 leagues
1 nautical mi. = 6076.11 ft.
1 ft. = 0.000165 nautical mi.
1 hand = 4 in. (equestrian)
1 in. = 0.2500 hands
METRIC
   
1 in. = 2.54 cm.
  1 cm. = 0.3937 in.
   
1 ft. = 30.48 cm.
  1 cm. = 0.0328 ft.
   
1 m. = 3.2808 ft.
  1 ft. = 0.3048 m.
   
1 m. = 39.37 in.
  1 in. = 0.0254 m.
   
1 m. = 1.0936 yd.
  1 yd. = 0.9144 m.
   
1 rod = 5.029 m.
  1 m. = 0.1988 rod
   
1 km = 1000 m.
  1 m. = 0.001 km.
   
1 km = 0.621 mi.
  1 mi. = 1.6103 km.

SQUARE MEASURES

  Common Usage
  Reciprocal Value
1 sq. ft. = 144 sq. in.
1 sq. in = .006944 sq. ft.
1 sq. yd. = 9 sq. ft.
1 sq. ft. = 0.1111 sq. yd.
1 sq. rod = 30.25 sq. yd.
1 sq. yd. = 0.0331 sq. rods
1 sq. mi. = 640 acres
1 acre = 0.0016 sq. mi.
METRIC
    1 sq. cm. = 0.1550 sq. in.   1 sq. in. = 6.452 sq. cm.    
    1 sq. ft. = 0.0929 sq. m.   1 sq. m. = 10.7643 sq. ft.    
    1 sq. m. = 1.196 sq. yd.   1 sq. yd. = 0.8361 sq. m.    
    1 hectare = 2.47 acres   1 acre = 0.4049 hectares    
    1 sq. km. = 0.386 sq. mi.   1 sq. mi. = 2.59 sq. km.    

CUBIC & VOLUME MEASURES

      Common Usage     Reciprocal Value    
1 cu. ft. = 1,728 cu. in 1 cu. in. = 0.0005787 cu. ft.
    1 cu. yd. = 27 cu. ft.   1 cu. ft. = 0.0370 cu. yd.    
    1 cord (wood) = 128 cu. ft.   1 cu. ft. = 0.0078 cord    
    1 US std. gal. = 231 cu. in.   1 cu. in. = 0.00433 US std. gal.    
METRIC
    1 cu. in. = 16.39 cu. cm.   1 cu. cm. = 0.0610 cu. in.    
    1 cu. m. = 35.3357 cu. ft.   1 cu. ft. = 0.0283 cu. m.    
    1 cu. m. = 1.308 cu. yd.   1 cu. yd. = 0.7646 cu. m.    
      DRY MEASURES
    1 qt. = 2 pints   1 pint = 0.5000 qt.    
    1 peck = 8 qt.   1 qt. = 0.1250 peck    
    1 bushel = 4 pecks   1 peck = 0.2500 bushels    
      METRIC
    1 qt. dry = 1.101 l.   1 l. = 0.908 qt. dry    
    1 peck = 8.810 l.   1 l. = 0.1135 peck    
    1 hectoliter = 2.8375 bushels   1 bushel = 0.3524 hectoliters    
      LIQUID MEASURES
    1 pint = 2 cup   1 cup = 0.5000 pints    
    1 qt. = 2 pints   1 pints = 0.5000 qt.    
    1 gal.. = 4 qt.   1 qt. = 0.2500 gal.    
    1 gal.. = 8 pints   1 pint = 0.125000 gal..    
    1 barrel = 31.5 gal..   1 gal.. = 0.0317 barrel    
      IMPERIAL & METRIC LIQUID MEASURE
    1 US gal.. = 0.833 Imp. gal..   1 Imp. gal.. = 1.201 US gal..    
    1 Imp. gal.. = 4.546 l.   1 l. = 0.2200 Imp. gal..    
    1 l. = 0.264 US gal..   1 US gal.. = 3.7879 l.    
    1 l. = 1.0567 qt. liquid   1 qt. liquid = 0.9463 l.    
    1 gal.. = 3.7854 l.   1 l. = 0.2642 gal..    
 

WEIGHT MEASURES

      Common Usage     Reciprocal Value    
1 lb. = 16 oz.
1 oz. = 0.0625 lb.  
    1 ton = 2000 lb.   1 lb. = 0.0005 ton    
METRIC
    1 oz. = 28.35 g.   1 gr. = 0.03527 oz.    
    1 kg = 1000 gm   1 gr. = 0.001 kg.    
    1 lb. = 0.4536 kg.   1 kg. = 2.2046 lb.    
    1 metric ton = 0.9842 English ton   1 English ton = 1.016 metric tons    
 

Temperature

      Celsius or Centigrade     Fahrenheit    
1 degree Celsius (C)  = 5/9 x (F - 32)  
    (9/5 x C) + 32  = 1 degree Fahrenheit (F)    

Air Density Calculation

Std Air Density = 1.22556 and is defined at 59.0F degrees, 0.0% humidity, and 29.92 inches on the barometer.
 
Temp C = (Temp-32.0) * 5.0 / 9.0;
Temp K = Temp C + 273.0;
Baro mb = Barometer / (29.92 / 1013.0);
Baro pa = Baro_mb * 100.0;
Saturation Pressure mb = 6.11 * pow(10,(7.5*Temp C)/(237.7+Temp_c));
Vapor Pressure mb = Humidity * Saturation Pressure mb / 100.0;
Temp Virtual K = Temp K / (1.0 - (Vapor Pressure mb/Baro_mb)*(1.-0.622))// D = P/(T*R)
Air Density = Baro_pa / (Temp Virtual_k*GasConstant)% Std Density = Air Density/Std Air Density*100

Thermal Conductivity Conversions:

1 cal/cm2/cm/sec/C = 10.63 watts/in - C

117 BTU/(hr-ft-F) x (.293 watt-hr/BTU) x (1.8F/C) x (ft/12 in.) = 5.14 watts/in - C
or
117 Btu / (hr-ft-F) x .04395 watt-hr-F-ft/(Btu=C - in) = 5.14 watts/in-C

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