Engineering Fluid Flow Design Menu

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Fluids Applications

  • Aerodynamic Drag Equation and Calculator Aerodynamic Drag is the opposing fluid drag force that acts on any moving solid body
  • Continuity Equation Continuity equation is a mathematical expression of the principle of conservation of mass.
  • Properties of Fluids A fluid is any substance which flows because its particles are not rigidly attached to one another.
  • Buoyancy Buoyancy is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object.
  • Compressibility Compressibility is the measure of the change in volume a substance undergoes when a pressure is exerted on the substance.
  • Relationship Between Depth and Pressure Relationship Between Depth and Pressure Review and Equations
  • Pascal's Law Pascal's law or the principle of transmission of fluid-pressure
  • Control Volume Control volume is a mathematical abstraction employed in the process of creating mathematical models of physical processes.
  • Volumetric Flow Rate volumetric flow rate (V ) of a system is a measure of the volume of fluid passing a point in the system per unit time.
  • Mass Flow Rate Mass flow rate of a system is a measure of the mass of fluid passing a point in the system per unit time
  • Conservation of Mass Mass flow rates into a control volume are equal to all mass flow rates out of the control volume plus the rate of change of mass within the control volume.
  • Steady-State Flow Steady-state flow refers to the condition where the fluid properties at any single point in the system do not change over time.
  • Continuity Equation Continuity equation is a mathematical expression of the principle of conservation of mass.

Bernoulli's Equation

Two-Phase Fluid Flow
  • Two-Phase Fluid Flow Two-phase flow occurs in a system containing gas and liquid with a meniscus separating the two phases
  • Flow Instability Unstable flow can occur in the form of flow oscillations or flow reversals.
  • Pipe Whip If a pipe were to rupture, the reaction force created by the high velocity fluid jet could cause the piping to displace and cause extensive damage
  • Water Hammer Water hammer is a liquid shock wave resulting from the sudden starting or stopping of flow.
  • Pressure spike Pressure spike is the resulting rapid rise in pressure above static pressure caused by water hammer.
  • Steam Hammer Steam hammer is a power hammer driven by steam.
  • Operational Considerations Practical Application Water and steam hammer are not uncommon occurrences in industrial plants.
Centrifugal Pumps Fluids and Flow Calculators

Pumps, Components, and Technology

Laminar and Turbulent Flow

  • Airfoil AeroDynamics Characteristics Calculator Mach Number, Reynolds Number, Dynamics Pressure, Viscosity
  • Flow Regimes Two flow regimes are laminar flow and turbulent flow
  • Laminar Flow Laminar flow (or streamline flow) occurs when a fluid flows in parallel layers, with no disruption between the layers.
  • Turbulent Flow Turbulent Flow Poseuille Law Equation
  • Flow Velocity Profiles Not all fluid particles travel at the same velocity within a pipe.
  • Average (Bulk) Velocity Ia single average velocity to represent the velocity of all fluid at that point in the pipe.
  • Viscosity Viscosity is a fluid property that measures the resistance of the fluid to deforming due to a shear force.
  • Ideal Fluid ideal fluid is one that is incompressible and has no viscosity.
  • Reynolds Number Reynolds number, based on studies of Osborn Reynolds, is dimensionless number of the physical characteristics of the flow.
Piping Hardware Design Data Head Loss
  • Head Loss Head loss is the reduction in the total head or pressure of the fluid as it moves through a fluid system.
  • Friction Factor Friction factor has been determined to depend on the Reynolds number for the flow and the degree of roughness of the pipes
  • Darcy's Equation Darcy's Equation Fluids Flow Equation - also called Darcy Weisbach equation.
  • Minor Losses Pressure losses that occur in pipelines due to bends, elbows, joints, valves, etc. are sometimes called minor losses.
  • Equivalent Piping Length Equivalent Piping Length Head Loss Equation Fluids

Natural Circulation

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