One of the key challenges when dealing with flow measurement using differential pressure meters is the design of the primary flow element such as an orifice plate, flow nozzle, venturi or other differential producer.The design of an orifice plate or any other primary device starts with the accumulation of several data items.These data points are then used to design physical dimensions of the orifice plate including the outer diameter, the plate thickness, the handle requirements, and the orifice bore.Process data are used in a calculation iteration to develop the orifice bore, and once the physical dimensions of the orifice are decided, this information is then used to complete the overall flow calculation.Worksheets are often utilized in order to accumulate the needed data for the flow calculation.
A sample process data worksheet is included below:
Triad Measurement & Equipment, Inc.
Orifice Plate Flow Calculation Data Sheet
Contact Phone Number
Contact Email Address
Drain / Vent Diameter
Tap Process Connection (NPT, SW, etc.)
Temperature at flow
The flow calculation takes into consideration all of the process flow conditions, the physical attributes of the orifice plate and then provides key results such as discharge coefficient, beta ratio, flow velocity, expected differential pressure, total pressure loss, etc.The flow calculation also takes into consideration correction factors such as temperature compensation, compressibility factors, fluid properties and other variables to ensure the most highly accurate instrument possible.
There are many terms that are commonly used for the basic flow calculation.Some of the common terms are: flow calculation data sheet, flow calculation, bore calculation; orifice bore calculation, orifice data sheet, etc.For the purposes in this brief, the outcome of this process will be referred to as the Flow Calculation.
Once the flow calculation is complete, the physical attributes of the meter can then be designed.There are several standard making authorities who have developed guidelines for the physical design of primary flow meters such as orifice plates.These include ASME MFC-3M, ISO 5167, AGA 3, PTC-6 (Performance Test Code) and PTC-19.5.Based on the details of these standards, the physical attributes of the meter such as bore design, bore location, pressure tap design, pressure tap location, required pipe straight run requirements, flow conditioning requirements, pipe material, pipe thickness, etc., can be determined.
These physical attributes are accumulated into an engineering design drawing which is utilized for the manufacture of the orifice plate or other device.The product is then manufactured with very tight tolerances.In the case of a PTC-6 Nozzle, deviations in measured bores as small as 3/1000th of an inch can lead to a meter that meets the code requirements and one that does not.As such the manufacturing process is tightly controlled and detailed measurements are taken to ensure that the orifice plate will perform as expected.
Steps required to design an orifice plate or orifice plate flow meter:
1.Identify the physical attributes of the piping system.
d.Orifice plate material
2.Identify and accumulate data on process flow conditions
a.Fluid to be measured
e.Flow rates (Minimum, Normal and Maximum)
3.Identify and accumulate information on other requirements of the flow meter
a.Desired differential pressure
b.Target beta ratio
c.Acceptable permanent pressure loss
d.Maximum flow velocity
Note: The flow calculation will provide much of this data, but consideration of this data is crucial to the overall piping system design.
4.Complete the pictorial or graphical depiction of the flow element including
g.Pipe bore attributes such as smoothness, roundness, etc.
k.Orifice plate details
m.Other requirements such as welding and non-destructive examination procedures
The process of designing and manufacturing primary flow elements such as orifice plates and orifice plate meters involves a high level of accuracy not only in the manufacturing process, but also in the data accumulation and calculation process.Many information sources regarding flow calculations provide simplified versions of the detailed flow calculations.These should not be used for detailed design of orifice plates or any other differential pressure producer such as flow nozzles or venturi because they do not consider the vast number of correction factors and detailed fluid properties that are needed to ensure the most accurate meter possible.