Extreme Pressure (EP) Lubrication Additives

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Extreme Pressure (EP) Lubrication Additives

Extreme pressure additives. Applications under extreme pressure conditions rely on additives. Lubricants containing additives that protect against extreme pressure are called EP lubricants, and oils containing additives to protect against extreme pressure are classified as EP oils. EP lubrication is provided by a number of chemical compounds. The most common are compounds of boron, phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, or combinations of these. The compounds are activated by the higher temperature resulting from extreme pressure, not by the pressure itself. As the temperature rises, EP molecules become reactive and release derivatives of phosphorus, chlorine, or sulfur (depending on which compound is used) to react with only the exposed metal surfaces to form a new compound such as iron chloride or iron sulfide. The new compound forms a solid protective coating that fills the asperities on the exposed metal. Thus, the protection is deposited at exactly the sites where it is needed. AW agents in the EP oil continue to provide antiwear protection at sites where wear and temperature are not high enough to activate the EP agents.

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