Spring Material and Types Data Review

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This table details engineeriong properties of common spring materials as well as some alloys for design material selection application. The specifications indicated are current at the time of publication.

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Types of Springs:
Compression Spring is an open-coil, helical spring that offer resistance to compressive loading.
Extension Spring is a close-coiled helical spring that offers resistance to a pulling force.
Torsion Spring exert pressure along a path which is a circular arc, or, in other words, providing torque.  Sometimes these springs are called torsion springs, motors springs, power springs.
Common Spring Materials and Engineering Properties

Spring
Material

Materials Specification

Density (lb/in3)

Minimum Tensile Strength
(psi x 106)

Modulus Elasticity (E)
(psi x 106)

Modulus Torsion (G)
(psi x 106)

Maximum Operating Temperature

Application

Beryllium Copper

ASTM B197

0.298

150 - 230

18.5

7.0

400 °F

Good corrosion resistance and electrical conductivity. Good physical strength.

Chrome Vanadium

ASTM A231

0.284

190 - 300

30.0

11.5

425 °F

Used for shock loads and moderately elevated temperatures.

Elgiloy

AMS 5833

270 - 330

32.0

12.0

250 °F

Excellent corrosion resistance.

Hard Drawn MB

ASTM A227

0.284

Class I: 147 - 283
Class II: 171 - 324

30.0

11.5

250 °F

Typical stress applications. Can be electroplated.

Hastelloy (C276)

ASTM B574

100 - 200

30.7

11.8

700 °F

High corrosion resistance.

Inconel 600

AMS B166

0.304

100 - 230

31.0

11.0

700 °F

Corrosion resistance at moderately elevated temperature.

Inconel 718

AMS B637

0.298

210 - 250

29.0

11.2

1100 °F

Good corrosion resistance at moderately elevated temperature.

Inconel X750

AMS 5698 / 5699

0.298

No. 1 Temper: 155 Min
Spring Temper: 190 - 230

31.0

12.0

750 - 1100 °F

Good corrosion resistance at moderately elevated temperature.

Monel 400

AMS 7233

0.319

145 - 180

26.0

9.5

450 °F

Good corrosion resistance at moderately elevated temperature.

Monel K 500

QQ-N-286

0.306

160 - 200

26.0

9.5

550 °F

Excellent corrosion resistance at moderately elevated temperature.

NiSpan C

AMS 5225

0.294

150 - 190

24.0 - 29.0

9.0 - 10.0

150 °F

Constant modulus alloy.

Music Wire

ASTM A228

0.284

230 - 399

30.0

12 (up to 0.100")
11.75 (over 0.100")

250 °F

Good surface finish.

Oil Tempered MB

ASTM A229

0.284

Class I: 165 - 293
Class II: 191 - 324

30.0

11.5

250 °F

General purpose spring wire can be heat treated.

Oil Tempered Chrome Silicon

ASTM A401

0.284

235 - 300

30.0

11.5

475 °F

Shock loads and moderately elevated temperatures.

Phosphor Bronze

ASTM B159

0.320

105 - 145

15.0

6.25

200 °F

Cold drawn. Good corrosion resistance and electrical conductivity.

Stainless Steel 302/304

ASTM A313

0.286

125 - 325

28.0

10.0

550 °F

Cold drawn general purpose corrosion and heat resistant.

Stainless Steel 316

ASTM A313

0.286

110 - 245

28.0

10.0

550 °F

Heat resistant and better corrosion resistance than 302.

Stainless Steel 17-7 PH

AMS 5678

0.282

235 - 335

29.5

11.0

650 °F

High strength and general purpose corrosion resistance.

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