Related Resources: Architectural Design

Architects Handbook

Civil Engineering

Architects Handbook
464 pages

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Preface

The Architects’ Handbook provides visual and technical information for most building types likely to be encountered by architects, designers and building surveyors. For each section, we have tried to ensure a representative sample of recent buildings to reflect the diversity of approach so essential in a well-designed environment. Numerous plans, many sections and elevations, and some three-dimensional views have been included, to give the essential character of a particular building. The distinctive contribution of this book is that it concentrates more on the overall character of buildings, and not on excessive detail or too much technical information. Although we have deliberately avoided comment on the design qualities of buildings, the fact that a building is included indicates. that we consider it makes a positive design contribution.

One aspect that became increasingly evident as the book progressed was just how flexible a building designation needs to be: ‘business parks’, for instance, do not want to be included in ‘industrial buildings’; an ‘arts center’ should be considered with theatres, and certainly not with ‘art galleries’; and is an arts center really just a superior type of community center? Many buildings designed to produce physical components, which we used to call ‘industrial buildings’, are now more akin to offices than industry. There are many similarities between an out-of-town hypermarket shed and a warehouse, yet one is commonly called a ‘shop’ and the other an‘industrial building’.

The question of how much reference should be made to technical standards and other legislation is never easy to answer. Wherever possible, therefore, such references have been kept to a minimum, and grouped at the end of the book. It should also be remembered that accessibility facilities have been discussed in several sections, and generally it has been assumed that, for instance, a disabled WC must be provided in every building to which the public has access, and it seemed superfluous to mention this in every instance.

The one thing of which we can be certain is that technical requirements will continue to be amended, and no doubt expanded. Architects and other designers have to keep abreast of seemingly constant changes and will appreciate that it is essential to check that all technical information is up to date.

One sad but inevitable development is the increasing rarity of drawings of good visual appeal. The growth of computer-aided design is resulting in the near-disappearance of visually satisfying drawings. CAD drawings are often unsuitable for book reproduction - there is little distinction in line thickness, much irrelevant detail is included (grid lines, minor dimensions etc.), while other important information often seems impossible to obtain (for instance, scales and north points). To try to ensure that the art of good drafting is not entirely forgotten, a section on drawing practice has therefore been included - a subject that otherwise might not seem to be particularly appropriate for this book.

This work has drawn upon many sources, and considerable efforts have been made to ensure that all copyright material has been properly credited. If by mischance anything has been overlooked, it will be noted in the next edition. Many specialists have been consulted about technical details, and their contributions are gratefully acknowledged; they are listed in the following pages.

Inevitably in a work as extensive as this, some errors are bound to occur, and readers’ comments and suggestions (which should be sent to the publishers) will all be noted.

TOC

AIRPORTS
The Airport
The Terminal
Air Traffic Control Towers
BUSINESS PARKS
Detailed Considerations
CINEMAS
Detailed Design
Servicing Facilities
Alternative Cinema Accommodation
COMMUNITY CENTRES
Community Consultation and Briefing
Sustainability
Design Issues
CREMATORIA
Schedule of Accommodation
EDUCATION: SCHOOLS
History
Types of Space
Building Design Issues
Grounds
Facilities Management
Provision for Under-5s
Primary
Middle Schools
Secondary Schools
Special Schools
EDUCATION:
UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES
Schedules of Accommodation
Other Considerations
Changing Educational Needs
Changing Social Expectations
Planning New Facilities
Conclusions
EDUCATION:
ART, DESIGN AND MEDIA STUDIOS
Design Studios
Workshops
Drawing Studios
FARM BUILDINGS
The Origins of the Modern Farm
Current Trends
Future Trends and the Need for New
Planning Controls
Design Considerations
Design and Appearance
Types of Farm
Energy Requirements
Examples of Types of Stock Housing
Storage Buildings
FIRE STATIONS 92
Schedule of Accommodation 93
HALLS OF RESIDENCE AND HOSTELS 99
Halls of Residence 99
Hostel and Shared Accommodation 104
Foyers 106
HEALTH SERVICE BUILDINGS 108
Hospital Departments 116
Hospital Support Services 127
Community and Locality Hospitals 129
Health Centers and General
Medical Practice Premises 131
Mental Health Services and their Buildings 132
Nursing Homes 134
HOSPICES 137
Detailed Design 138
HOTELS 142
Categories of Hotels 142
Locations 142
Functional Relationships 143
Guest Rooms 145
Entrances 148
Lobbies 148
Restaurants, Bars, Function Rooms 149
Employee Facilities 151
Technical Areas 152
HOUSING AND RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS 154
Public Sector 156
Private Sector Development 159
PPG 3 (Housing) 160
Brownfield Sites 160
Lifetime Homes 160
Site Topography 162
Site Layout and Access 163
Pedestrian Access 166
Services 166
Private Garages 167
Relationship to Other Buildings 169
Dwelling Design Standards and Regulations 172
Classification of Plan Types 177
Selecting Plans 178
Flats: Building Types 182
Flats: Types of Access 183
Duplex and Triplex Sections 184
Flats: Determining Factors 184
Internal Function 187
Main Entrance 187
Living / Reception Rooms 187
Dining Room 187
Study 187
Specialist Rooms 187
Kitchens 188
Laundry and Utility Spaces 191
Bedrooms 191
Bathrooms wc
Storage
Safety and Security Generally
INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS
Site Selection
Development Options
Site Layout
Basic Building Type Selection
Site Development
Selection Strategy
Factories
Factory Building Types
Warehouses
Layout
Warehouse Building Types and Handling
Workshops
Workshop Tenancies: Building Type
Building Environment
Waste Removal
Planning for Fire Control
Environmental Compartmentation
Workplace Design
Amenity and Hygiene
Loading Bays
LABORATORIES
Space Standards
The Laboratory Space
Offices
Back-up Rooms
Lab Storage Areas
Fitting Out
Engineering Services
Building Fabric
LANDSCAPE WORKS
Design Factors
General Features of Landscape Works
Private Gardens
Public and Commercial Landscape Works
Street Furniture
Public Open Spaces and Parks
LAW COURTS
Types of Court
The Court Building
The Crown Courtroom
The Courtroom Environment
The Courthouse
192
193
193
195
197
197
198
199
200
200
202
202
207
207
209
212
214
218
219
219
220
220
221
222
225
226
226
226
227
227
229
230
23 1
232
236
239
242
243
245
246
247
249
249
197
225
231
245
Design Variations with Non-Crown Courts 551
LIBRARIES AND LEARNING
RESOURCE CENTRES 253
Schedule of Accommodation and
Detailed Design 254
Building Services 259
MUSEUMS AND ART GALLERIES
The Organization of the Collection
The Role of the Museum
The Museum Today
Accessibility
The Message of the Building
Visitor Centers
Design of the Museum
Extending the Museum Wings
Access and Circulation
Communication Signage
Design for Curatorial Needs and
Conservation Work
Detailed Design
Information Technology
Environment
Lighting
Security
OFFICES
History
Trends
Spaces
Layout
Technology and Power
Environment
Settings
Shell and Scenery
PUBS
The Pub Atmosphere
Pub Usage
RELIGIOUS BUILDINGS
Religious Affiliation
Christian Churches
Mosques
Synagogues
Hindu Temples
Sikh Temples
RESTAURANTS AND CATERING
FACILITIES
Planning Factors
Restaurant Types and Space Allowances
Kitchens and Catering Facilities
Counters/Serving Areas
WC Provision
Legislation
SHOPS AND RETAIL
Terminology
Detailed Design
Small Shops
Medium-size Stores and Supermarkets
Shopping Centers/Superstores/Hypermarkets
SPORTS FACILITIES
Stadiums: General Design
Athletics
Sports Pitches and Courts
Swimming
Tennis
Equestrian
THEATRES AND ARTS CENTRES
Organization
Reception / Front of House
Auditorium
Stage/Backstage
Supporting Areas
Regulations
VEHICLE FACILITIES
Detailed Design
Car Park Design
Petrol Stations
Vehicle Showrooms
Vehicle Services
Bus and Coach Stations
Transport Interchanges
YOUTH HOSTELS
Types of Youth Hostel
Detailed Design
ZOOS AND AQUARIUMS
Zoos: Detailed Design
Aquariums: Design
Marine Animal Parks, Oceanariums, etc.
DESIGN FOR ACCESSIBILITY
Guidance and Principles
Approaches
Entrances
Internal Circulation
Lavatories
Showers, Bathrooms, Changing Facilities
Kitchens
Counters and Work Surfaces
Windows and External Doors
Controls
Protection
Support
Information
Specific Buildings
Existing Buildings
Legislation
DRAWING PRACTICE AND
PRESENTATION
Traditional Drawing Skills
Organization of Drawings
Projections
Sections
Scales
Lettering
Expressing Sizes
Presentation of Dimension Lines and Sizes

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