Related Resources: Design and Engineering General

Design of Hardened Structures, Principles and Practices

Machine Design Equation and Calculators
Engineering Physics
Static's Resources

Design of Hardened Structures, Principles and Practices

Premium Membership Required to view Document/Book 

Open: Design of Hardened Structures, Principles and Practices

OBJECTIVES

The objectives of this manual are:

a. To present the current "state of the art" of structural design to resist the effects of nuclear explosions.

b. To guide and assist the designer who has some familiarity with nuclear blast phenomena, dynamic theory and limit design.

c. To provide theory, data, background and references so that
work undertaken by architect-engineer firms for the Air Force can follow standardized procedures.

This manual by original intent does not attempt to extend the theoretical frontiers per se. Rather, the intent is to select and apply existing theory and procedures so that the result is based upon the best available knowledge. The manual, therefore, draws liberally from the referenced sources. In some few cases (which are noted) portions of references were felt to be precisely suited to the discussion and are therefore included. Quite obviously, a manual prepared under these circumstances reflects to a considerable extent the experience and Judgment of the authors. Periodic re-examination and re-evaluation will be required as more and better experimental and theoretical information becomes available.

SOURCES

Four general sources have bon used in obtaining material for this manual. They are:
a. Field Tests. Interim Technical and Weapon Test Reports.
b. Laboratory Tests. Experimental laboratory work performed by universities, government laboratories, and private research activities.
c. Theoretical studies.
d. Extension of Work in Related Fields. Work done in such fields as seismology, geology, soil mechanics, and other branches of engineering and science.

TOC

CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Objective
1.2 Sources
1.3 General Assumptions
1.4 Presentation
1.5 Notation
1.6 Accuracy and Precision
1.7 Statistical Aspects

CHAPTER 2. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Pro-Design Considerations
2.2.1 Functions of the Facility
2.2.2 Importance of the Facility
2.2.3 Probability and Proportions of Attack
2.2.4 Required Levels of Protection
2.2.5 Economic Considerations
2.3 Choice of Structural Configuration

CHAPTER 3. AIR BLAST PHENOMENA
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Air Blast
3.2.1 Introduction
3.2.2 Overpressure
3.2.3 Dynamic Pressure
3.2.4 Effects of Surface and Topography
3.3 Air Blast in Tunnels and Ducts
3.3.1 Shock Formation In Straight Tunnels
3.3.2 Effect of Bends and Junctions
3.3.3 Attenuation of Peak Overpressure In Straight Tunnels
3.3.4 Blast Loading on Doors and lost Valves in Tunnels and Ducts
3.4 References

CHAPTER 4. FREE-FIELD GROUND NOTION
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Air-Induced Ground Motion
4.2.1 Introduction
4.2.2 Stress Attenuation
4.2.3 Soil Properties2
4.2.4 Displacement
4.2.5 Velocity
4.2.6 Acceleration
4.2.7 Outrunning Ground Motions
4.2.8 Examples of Air-Induced Displacement Computation
4.3 Direct-Transmitted Ground Shock9
4.3.1 Introduction
4.3.2 Theoretical Basis of Predictions
4.3.3 Energy Equivalence
4.3.4 Experimental Results in Rock
4.3.5 Applicability to Other Materials
4.3.6 Tangential Notions
4.3.7 Effect of Layered Systems
4.4 References

CHAPTER 5. DETERMINATION OF LOADS ON STRUCTURES
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Above-Ground Structures
5.2.1 Introduction
5.2.2 Completely Closed Rectangular Structures
5.2.3 Above-Ground Open Rectangular Structures10
5.2.4 Above-Ground Arches
5.2.5 Above-Ground Domes2
5.3 Underground Structures
5.3.1 Introduction
5.3.2 Soil-Structure Interaction
5.3.3 Influence of Construction Methods
5.3.4 Fully-Buried Rectangular Structures S-SI
5.3.5 Fully Buried Arches
5.3.6 Fully Buried Dames
5.3.7 Underground Vertical Cylindrical Structures
5.4 Partially Buried Structures
5.4.1 Introduction
5.4.2 Rectangular Structures
5.4.3 Partially Buried Arches
5.4.4 Partially Buried Domes0
5.5 References

CHAPTER 6. DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS
6.1 Introduction-I
6.2.1 General Discussion
6.2.2 Structural Steel
6.2.3 High Strength Low Alloy Steels
6.2.4 Reinforcing steel
6.2.5 Brittle Behavior of Materials and Connections
6.3 Concrete
6.4 Timber
6.5 References

CHAPTER 7. FAILURE AND DESIGN CRITERIA
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Failure vs Satisfactory Performance
7.3 Safety Factor
7.4 Design Criteria
7.5 Ductility Ratio
7.6 General Recommendations
7.7 References

CHAPTER 8. PROPERTIES OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Reinforced Concrete Beam; and One-Way Slab1
8.2.1 Introduction
8.2.2 Flexural Strength of Seam Sections
8.2.3 Diagonal Tension-6
8.2.4 Pure Shear
8.2.5 Stiffness
8.2.6 Natural Period
8.3 Two-Way Slabs
8.3.1 Flexural Strength
8.3.2 Shear Strength
8.3.3 Supporting Beams
8.3.4 Stiffness
8.3.5 Natural Period
8.4 Reinforced Concrete Columns
8.4.1 Axially Loaded Reinforced Concrete Columns
8.4.2 Combined flexure and Axial Loads
8.4.3 Period
8.5 Steel Beams
8.5.1 Introduction
8.5.2 Flexural Strength
8.5.3 Shear Strength
8.5.4 Local Buckling
8.5.5 Stiffness
8.5.6 Natural Period
8.6 Steel Columns
8.6.1 Axially Loaded Columns
8.6.2 Local Buckling
8.7 Circular Arches
8.7.1 Introduction
8.7.2 Natural Period
8.7.3 Resistance
8.7.4 Buckling
8.7.5 Ductility Factor
8.8 Domes
8.8.1 Introduction
8.8.2 Ductility
8.8.3 Natural Period
8.8.4 Compression Mode
8.8.5 Flexural Mode
8.8.6 Buckling
8.9 Silos and Tunnels
8.10 Footings
8.10.1 Flexural Resistance
8.10.2 Shear
8.11 References

CHAPTER 9. DESIGN AND PROPORTIONING OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Reinforced Concrete Beams and One-Way Slabs
9.3 Reinforced Concrete Two-Way Slab and Supporting Beams
9.4 Steel Beams
9.5 Arches
9.6 Domes
9.7 Vertical Shafts and Silos
9.8 Footings
9.9 Columns

CHAPTER 10. EARTH SHOCK AND SHOCK MOUNTING
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Shock Response Spectra
10.2.1 Response Spectra for Elastic Systems
10.2.2 Response Spectra for Inelastic Systems
10.3 Design of Simple Structures for Ground Shock
10.4 Design of Multi-Story Structures for Ground Shock
10.4.1 Design for Horizontal Motions
10.4.2 Design for Vertical Motions
10.5 Shock Effects on Mounted Equipment
10.5.1 Basic Considerations in Shock Mounting
10.5.2 Provision for Relative Distortion of Equipment and Structure
10.5.3 Nature of Elastic Systems Comprised of Mounted Equipment
10.5.4 Response of Light Equipment Mounted on Building Frame Members
10.5.5 Shock Effects on Heavy Equipment
10.6 Theoretical Approach for Complex Linear Systems
10.7 References

CHAPTER 11. ARCHITECTURAL CONSIDERATIONS
11.1 General Approach
11.2 Entranceways
11.3 Doors
11.3.1 Protective Doors
11.3.2 Types of Doors
11.3.3 Functional Requirements
11.3.4 Important Door Characteristics
11.4 Ventilation and Blast Valves
11.5 Foundations and Sealing
11.6 Structural Details
11.6.1 Concrete Construction
11.6.2 Steel Construction
11.7 Utility Systems
11.7.1 Utility Service Load
11.7.2 Water Supply
11.7.3 Water Storage
11.7.4 Lighting, Electric Power
11.7.5 Sanitary Sewers
11.7.6 Fire Protection
11.7.7 Equipment Mounting, Utility Connections
11.7.9 Miscellaneous Facilities
11.8 Costs
11.8.2 Limited Cost Breakdown
11.8.3 Principal Factors Affecting Costs
11.9 References

CHAPTER 12. NUCLEAR RADIATION
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Design Importance2
12.3 Protection
12.4 Radiation Characteristics
12.4.1 Kinds of Radiation
12.4.2 Units of Measure
12.5 Vulnerabilities
12.6 Prediction of Levels at Site
12.7 Gamma Radiation, Shielding
12.8 Neutron Radiation Shielding
12.9 References

APPENDIX A. DESIGN EXAMPLES
A.l Buried Rectangular Structures
A.1.1 Design of Two-Way Roof Slab
A.1.2 Design of Supporting Beams
A.2 Buried Arch
A.3 Fully Buried Dome
A.4 Shallow Buried Dome

APPENDIX S. DYNAMIC THEORY OF STRUCTURES
6.1 Introduction
B.1.1 Single Versus Multi-Degrees-of- Freedom Systems
8.1.2 Importance of Equation of' Motion
8.2 Methods of Analysis of Simple Systems
B.2.1 Introduction
8.2.2 Methods of Analysis
B.2.3 Approximate Analysis of Similar Systems Subject to Dynamic Loads
8.2.4 Sliding, Overturning and Rebound of Simple Systems
5.3 Notation
8.4 References

APPEND:X C. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND FOR PREDICTIONS OF FREE-FIELD GROUND MOTIONS
C.1 Introduction
C.2 Two and Three-Dimensional Studies of Air- Induced Ground Notions
C.2.1 Three-Dimensional Studies
C.2.2 Two-Dimensional Studies
C.3 Ground Motions by One-Dimensional Wave Theory
C.3.1 Uniform Elastic Medium
C.3.2 Layered Elastic Medium
C.3.3 Non-elastic Media6
C.4 References

Contribute Article
Spider Optimizer

© Copyright 2000 - 2019, by Engineers Edge, LLC www.engineersedge.com
All rights reserved
Disclaimer | Feedback | Advertising | Contact

Date/Time:


User Reviews/Comments:

There are currently no comments available.


Add a Comment (you must be logged in to post comment Register):
Name:
Email: (Optional)
Comment: