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Metallurgy Engineering Fundamentals

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Metallurgy Engineering Fundamentals

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Metallurgy Engineering Fundamentals

Preface

Metallurgy refers to the science and technology of metals. The subject area can be considered as a combination of chemistry, physics and mechanics with special reference to metals. In later years, metallurgy has expanded into materials science and engineering encompassing metallic, ceramic and polymeric materials.

Metallurgy is an ancient subject linked to the history of mankind. The development of civilisations from stone age, bronze age and iron age can be thought of as the ages of naturally available ceramic materials, followed by the discovery of copper that can be produced relatively easily and iron that needs higher temperatures to produce. These follow the pattern of the Ellingham diagram known to all metallurgists. Faraday introduced the concept of electrolysis which revolutionised metal production. Today, we are able to produce highly reactive metals by electrolysis.

The prime objective to produce metals and alloys is to have materials with optimised properties. These properties are related to structure and thus, physical as well as mechanical properties form essential parts of metallurgy. Properties of metals and alloys enable the choice of materials in production engineering.

The book, Fundamentals of Metallurgy is a compilation of various aspects of metallurgy in different chapters, written by the most eminent scientists in the world today. These participants, despite their other commitments, have devoted a great deal of time and energy for their contributions to make this book a success. Their dedication to the subject is admirable. I thank them sincerely for their efforts.

TOC

Part I Understanding the effects of processing on the properties of metals
1 Descriptions of high-temperature metallurgical processes 3
H Y SOHN, University of Utah and S SRIDHAR, Carnegie Mellon University, USA
1.1 Introduction 3
1.2 Reactions involving gases and solids 4
1.3 Reactions involving liquid phases 17
1.4 Casting processes 27
1.5 Thermomechanical processes 31
1.6 References 34
1.7 Appendix: notation 37
2 Thermodynamic aspects of metals processing 38
R E AUNE and S SEETHARAMAN, Royal Institute of
Technology, Sweden
2.1 Introduction 38
2.2 Basic concepts in thermodynamics 39
2.3 Chemical equilibrium 44
2.4 Unary and multicomponent equilibria 49
2.5 Thermodynamics of solutions 57
2.6 Thermodynamics of multicomponent dilute solutions 66
2.7 Modelling of metallic systems 70
2.8 Thermodynamics of ionic melts 72
2.9 Basics of electrochemical thermodynamics 79
2.10 Conclusions 79
2.11 Further reading 80
2.12 References 80
3 Phase diagrams, phase transformations, and the
prediction of metal properties 82
K MO R I T A , The University of Tokyo and N S A N O , Nippon Steel
Corporation, Japan
3.1 Introduction 82
3.2 Phase diagrams and potential diagrams 83
3.3 Ternary phase diagrams 87
3.4 Solidification in ternary systems and four-phase equilibria 95
3.5 Examples of solidification behaviour from a phase diagram
perspective 102
3.6 Conclusions 107
3.7 References 108
4 Measurement and estimation of physical
properties of metals at high temperatures 109
K C MI L L S , Imperial College London, UK
4.1 Introduction 109
4.2 Factors affecting physical properties and their measurement 113
4.3 Measurements and problems 120
4.4 Fluid flow properties 122
4.5 Properties related to heat transfer 136
4.6 Properties related to mass transfer 146
4.7 Estimating metal properties 148
4.8 Acknowledgements 169
4.9 References 169
4.10 Appendix A: calculation of structural parameters NBO/T and
optical basicity 175
4.11 Appendix B: notation 176
5 Transport phenomena and metals properties 178
A K L A H I R I , Indian Institute of Science, India
5.1 Introduction 178
5.2 Mass transfer 178
5.3 Heat transfer 200
5.4 Fluid flow 217
5.5 Further reading 235
5.6 References 236
6 Interfacial phenomena, metals processing and
properties 237
K MU K A I , Kyushu Institute of Technology, Japan
6.1 Introduction 237
6.2 Fundamentals of the interface 238
6.3 Interfacial properties of a metallurgical melts system 257
6.4 Interfacial phenomena in relation to metallurgical processing 260
6.5 Further reading 267
6.6 References 267
7 The kinetics of metallurgical reactions 270
S S R I D H A R , Carnegie Mellon University, USA and
H Y S O H N , University of Utah
7.1 Introduction 270
7.2 Fundamentals of heterogeneous kinetics 270
7.3 Solid-state reactions 278
7.4 Gas-solid reactions 290
7.5 Liquid-liquid reactions 311
7.6 Solid-liquid reactions 313
7.7 Gas-liquid reactions 318
7.8 Comprehensive process modeling 321
7.9 References 341
7.10 Appendix: notation 346
8 Thermoanalyticalmethods in metals processing 350
O N MO H A N T Y , The Tata Iron and Steel Company, India
8.1 Introduction 350
8.2 Thermogravimetry (TG) 356
8.3 Differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential scanning
calorimetry (DSC) 358
8.4 Evolved gas analysis (EGA) and detection (EGD) 363
8.5 References 365
9 Improving process design in steelmaking 369
D S I C H E N , Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden
9.1 Introduction 369
9.2 Overview of process design 369
9.3 Thermodynamics and mass balance 375
9.4 Kinetics ± mass transfer and heat transfer 385
9.5 Optimization of interfacial reactions 387
9.6 Micro-modelling 393
9.7 Conclusions 396
9.8 References 396
10 Solidification and steel casting 399
A W CR AMB , Carnegie Mellon University, USA
10.1 Introduction 399
10.2 Solidification fundamentals 400
10.3 The growth of solids 413
10.4 The casting of steels 428
10.5 Conclusions 449
10.6 Acknowledgements 450
10.7 References 450
11 Analysing metal working processes 453
G E N G B E R G , SSAB TunnplaÊt AB and MIK Research AB (MIKRAB) and L KA R L S S O N , Dalarna University, Sweden
11.1 Introduction 453
11.2 Work hardening 454
11.3 Rate effects 457
11.4 Interaction with phase transformations 462
11.5 Examples of material behaviour during processing 463
11.6 Development trends 468
11.7 References 469
12 Understanding and improving powder
metallurgical processes 471
F LEMO I S S O N and L F R O Y E N , Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium
12.1 Introduction 471
12.2 Production processes for powders 471
12.3 Forming processes towards near-net shape 486
12.4 Conclusions 500
12.5 References 500
13 Improving steelmaking and steel properties 503
T EMI , Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden
13.1 Introduction 503
13.2 Developing processes and properties with reference to market, energy, and environment 506
13.3 Optimization of processes to meet properties and productivity 523
13.4 Economic optimization 537
13.5 Environmental optimization 546
13.6 Future trends 550
13.7 Further reading 553
13.8 References 553
Index 555
Contents ix

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