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Concurrent Engineering Electronic Circuit Design

Engineering Applications and Design
Design for Manufacturing and Assembly

Introduction to Concurrent Engineering: Electronic Circuit Design and Production Applications
Prepared by Reliability Analysis Center
122 pages

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Concurrent Engineering (CE) utilizes Multi-discipline Design Teams to perform the simultaneous design of the product and all of the life-cycle processes associated with the product that are required to meet the user's needs. CE begins with a complete identification of these user needs, some of which may be conflicting in nature, and then seeks to optimize the design of both the product and the process over this entire spectrum of needs to assure maximum customer satisfaction. Organizations, which fail to take advantage of CE's benefits and fail to utilize CE in their design process, may eventually cease to be competitive in the world marketplace.

CE, which emphasizes Multi-parameter Optimization of the design, is still an emerging concept which means that not all facets of the technology are firmly in place. The automated tools, used as one means of implementing CE, are incomplete or non-existent in some areas, and highly fragmented in others. However, they will continue to be improved, integrated, and made accessible to multi-user engineering workstations. This trend will continue to enhance the synergistic relationship between the various technical disciplines.

The demonstrated effectiveness of a CE design approach in reducing development time and development cost while at the same time enhancing customer satisfaction for commercial products has made this approach prudent for Department of Defense (DoD) also. MIL-STD-499B "Systems Engineering" (when approved) will implement the technical essence of Concurrent Engineering in new DoD procurement contracts by requiring: a) the simultaneous development of system products and life-cycle processes to satisfy user needs, b) the utilization of multidisciplinary teams, and c) a systems engineering methodology. Separate DoD procurement requirements (CALS) also obligate the contractor to consider some form of automated interchange of technical information in lieu of paper deliverables. Combined together, these factors will have significant contractual impact upon Reliability, Maintainability, Safety and Logistics requirements.

TOC

SECTION 1: THE NEED FOR CONCURRENT ENGINEERING
1.0 THE NEED FOR CONCURRENT ENGINEERING ............................................. 1
1.1 The Problem - Loss of Markets and Loss of Competitiveness .................. 1
1.2 The Solution: Concurrent Engineering ........................................................ 1
1.2.1 The Essence of Concurrent Engineering ............................................ 2
1.2.2 The Process: Translation of the Requirements Into The Product .................................. 3
1.2.3 The Philosophy: Continuous and Aggressive Design Improvement ..................... 4
1.3 Some Common Misconceptions Regarding CE ........................................... 4
1.4 The Benefits of Concurrent Engineering ....................................................... 5
1.5 Management Challenges of Concurrent Engineering ................ 7
1.6 The Multi-Discipline Team Concept ............................................................. 7
1.7 The Need for Concurrent Engineering References ...................................... 8

SECTION 2: ROBUST CIRCUIT DESIGN
2.0 ROBUST CIRCUIT DESIGN .................................................................................... 13
2.1 Robust Circuit Design Parts Database ............................................................ 15
2.2 Environmental Considerations ....................................................................... 16
2.3 Robust Circuit Analysis ..................................................................................... 16
2.3.1 Extreme Value Analysis (EVA) or Absolute Worst Case ................ 17
2.3.2 Root-Sum-Squared ................................................................................. 17
2.3.3 Monte Carlo Simulation ....................................................................... 18
2.3.4 Application of the Various Methods .................................................. 19
2.4 Taguchi Methods and Design of Experiments ............................................. 19
2.5 Robust Circuit Design References ................................................................... 22

SECTION 3: RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY CONSIDERATIONS
3.0 RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY CONSIDERATIONS ..................... 27
3.1 Reliability Program ............................................................................................ 27
3.1.1 Reliability Modeling and Prediction .................................................. 31
3.1.1.1 Reliability Modeling Methods ................................................ 33
3.1.1.2 Reliability Prediction Methods ................................................ 34
3.1.1.3 Tailoring Reliability Models and Predictions ...................... 35
3.1.2 Part D erating ............................................................................................ 36
3.1.3 Failure Mode, Effects and Criticality Analysis .................................... 38
3.1.4 Fault Tree Analysis ................................................................................ 40
3.1.4.1 Fault Tree Construction .......................................................... 41
3.1.4.2 Qualitative Evaluations - Cut Sets ......................................... 42
3.1.4.3 Qualitative Importances ........................................................... 44

3.0 RELIABILITY AND MAINTAINABILITY CONSIDERATIONS (Contd)
3.1.4.4 Common Cause Susceptibilities .............................................. 44
3.1.4.5 Quantitative Evaluations ......................................................... 44
3.1.4.6 Additional Reference Source .................................................. 46
3.1.5 Sneak Circuit Analysis ............................................................................ 46
3.1.5.1 Topological Pattern Identification .......................................... 47
3.1.5.2 Clue Application ......................................................................... 47
3.1.5.3 Recent SCA Developments ..................................................... 47
3.1.6 Finite Element Analysis .......................................................................... 49
3.1.6.1 Fatigue Life Prediction ............................................................... 50
3.1.6.2 Creep and Stress Relaxation ..................................................... 51
3.1.7 Failure Reporting Analysis and Corrective Action Systems .......... 51
3.1.7.1 DoD FRACAS Requirements ................................................... 54
3.1.7.2 FRACAS In Industry Applications ........................................ 55
3.2 Maintainability Program ................................................................................... 55
3.2.1 Maintainability Prediction ..................................................................... 55
3.3 Reliability and Maintainability References ................................................... 58
3.3.1 DoD Specifications, Standards, and Handbooks ............................... 58
3.3.2 Other Source Documents ........................................................................ 59
3.3.3 References ................................................................................................. 60

SECTION 4 PRODUCTION CONSIDERATIONS
4.0 PRODUCTION CONSIDERATIONS ...................................................................... 63
4.1 Producibility Engineering ................................................................................ 63
4.1.1 Specific Characteristics of the Design .................................................. 63
4.1.2 Characteristics of Production Planning ............................................. 65
4.2 Electrical Producibility Considerations .......................................................... 66
4.3 Environmental Stress Screening ..................................................................... 67
4.3.1 The MIL-STD-2164 Approach to ESS .................................................. 68
4.3.2 The DOD-HDBK-344 Approach to ESS ................................................ 69
4.3.3 Institute of Environmental Sciences .................................................... 70
4.4 Producibility References .................................................................................. 70

SECTION 5: TESTABILITY CONSIDERATIONS
5.0 TESTABILITY CONSIDERATIONS ...................................................................... 75
5.1 Design for Testability Objectives and Requirements ................................. 75
5.2 Testability Program Monitoring and Control ............................................... 76
5.3 Testability Design and Analysis ...................................................................... 77
5.4 Tailoring a Testability Program ...................................................................... 78
5.5 ANSI/IEEE Standard 1149.1 ............................................................................. 79
5.6 Testability References ....................................................................................... 80

SECTION 6: COMPLEMENTARY EFFORTS AND ACTIVITIES
6.0 COMPLEMENTARY EFFORTS AND ACTIVITIES ........................................... 83
6.1 Computer-Aided Acquisition and Logistics (CALS) ................................... 83
6.2 MIL-HDBK-59 Requirements ......................................................................... 83
6.3 MIL-STD-1840 Requirements ......................................................................... 85
6.4 Some Other DoD and/or Industry CE Initiatives ........................................ 86
6.4.1 D IC E ........................................................................................................... 86
6.4.2 CAD Framework Initiatives ................................................................... 86
6.4.3 RAMCAD ................................................................................................. 87
6.5 Complementary Efforts and Activities References .................................... 87

SECTION 7: CURRENTLY AVAILABLE AUTOMATED TOOLS
,.0 REPRESENTATIVE SAMPLE OF AVAILABLE AUTOMATED TOOLS ....... 91
7.1 Electrical and Electronic Design Analysis Tools ........................................... 92
7.1.1 Schematic Capture Packages ................................................................. 92
7.1.2 Analog Circuit and Digital Logic Simulation and Analysis Tools ..................................... 93
7.2 Thermal Analysis Tools .................................................................................... 9
7.3 Electromagnetic Design and Simulation Tools .......................................... 97
7.4 Reliability Analysis Software Tools ............................................................... 98
7.4.1 Detail Stress Electronic Reliability Prediction .................................... 99
7.4.1.1 MIL-HDBK-217 Based Predictions ........................................... 100
7.4.1.2 Non-MIL-HDBK-217 Based Predictions ................................. 100
7.4.2 Reliability Prediction - Part Count ........................................................ 101
7.4.3 Mechanical Reliability Prediction ......................................................... 102
7.4.4 Nonoperating Reliability Prediction .................................................... 103
7.4.5 Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis Tools ....................... 103
7.4.6 Fault Tree Analysis Tools ....................................................................... 104
7.4.7 MARKOV Reliability Modeling Tools ................................................ 105
7.4.8 Failure Reporting Analysis and Corrective Action System Tools ............................................... 106
7.4.9 Automated Sneak Circuit Analysis ...................................................... 107
7.5 Maintainability Analysis Tools ........................................................................ 107
7.6 Mathematical/Graphical Analysis Tools ....................................................... 108
7.7 Testability Analysis Tools ................................................................................. 109
7.8 Finite Element Analysis Tools ......................................................................... 110
7.9 Automated Tool References ............................................................................. 111

SECTION 8: SOME CHALLENGES FOR CE IN TODAYS AUTOMATION ENVIRONMENT
8.0 SOME CHALLENGES FOR CE IN TODAY'S AUTOMATION ENVIRONMEN T ....................................................... 115
8.1 Present Database Limitations ........................................................................... 115
8.2 Limitations of Today's Automated Tools ..................................................... 115
8.3 Challenges for CE References ........................................................................... 116

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