Design for Producibility

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Design for Producibility

Producibility has been defined in many ways. The most desirable producible design is one that could be made by any reasonably skilled worker out of a wide variety of material in a short time.

For the purposes of this handbook, producibility is defined as the combined effect of those elements or characteristics of a design and the production planning for it that enables the item, described by the design, to be produced and inspected in the quantity required and that permits a series of trade-offs to achieve the optimum of the least possible cost and the minimum time, while still meeting the necessary quality and performance requirements. The key elements of this definition, analyzed independently in the paragraphs that follow, provide the fundamental factors having the greatest impact on producibility.

Table of Contents:

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

CHAPTER 1
BASIC CONCEPTS OF PRODUCIBILITY
INTRODUCTION
DEFINITION OF PRODUCIBILITY
ELEMENTS OR CHARACTERISTICS OF A DESIGN
“Specified Materials
Simplicity of Design 0
Flexibility in Production Alternatives
Tolerance Requirements
Clarity and Simplicity of the Technical Data package
ELEMENTS OR CHARACTERISTICS OF PRODUCTION PLANNING
Production Rate and Quality
Special Tooling Requirements
Manpower
Facilities
Availability of Materials
PRODUCTION OR INSPECTION IN QUANTITY REQUIRED
High-Rate Production and Inspection
Low-Rate Production and Inspection
OPTIMAL COST AND TIME THROUGH TRADE-OFFS
Least Cost
Least Time
NECESSARY QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
EXAMPLES OF GOOD AND POOR PRODUCIBILITY
PROJECTILE BODY
AIRCRAFT DISPENSER HOUSING
WARHEAD BODY
ADAPTER
SPIDER AND NUT ASSEMBLY
SELF-CENTERING GASKETS
THREADED INSERTS
SWITCH HOUSING
PRODUCIBILITY IN THE FABRICATION PROCESS
PRODUCIBILITY AND THE DESIGN PROCESS
INTERFACE WITH OTHER FUNCTIONAL AREAS
Reliability, Availability, and Maintainability
Safety Engineering
Standardization
Design/Cost Techniques
Manufacturing Technology
Life Cycle Costing
Systems Engineering
Quality Assurance and Testing
Technical Data Management
Value Engineering
Product Engineering
INTERFACE BETWEEN PRODUTCTION DISCIPLINES
Production’ Manufacturing Engineering
Industrial Engineering
Production Control
Material Control
Quality Control
Packaging
Tool Engineering
Process Planning
Plant Engineering
PRODUCIBILITY HANDBOOK OVERVIEW
CHAPTER 1, BASIC CONCEPTS OF PRODUCIBILITY
CHAPTER 2, PRODUCIBILITY ENGINEERING
CHAPTER 3, COMMON PRODUCIBILITY CONSIDERATIONS
CHAPTERS 4 THROUGH 9, SPECIFIC PRODUCIBILITY
CONSIDERATIONS ,
REFERENCES

CHAPTER 2
PRODUCIBILITY ENGINEERING
INTRODUCTION
PRODUCIBILITY ENGINEERING ACTIVITIES
SPECIFIED PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS
PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
PRODUCIBILITY ENGINEERING ACTIVITIES
Simplicity of Design
Standardization of Materials and Components
Production Capability
Design Flexibility
Test and Evaluation
General Activities
ORGANIZING FOR PRODUCIBILITY
DO-NOTHING PHILOSOPHY
ASSIGN RESPONSIBILITY TO PRODUCT ENGINEERING
ASSIGN RESPONSIBILITY TO Production ENGINEERING
ESTABLISH NEW FUNCTION
Producibility Review Team
Producibility Committee
DESIGNING FOR PRODUCIBILITY
INTRODUCTION
THE DESIGN PROCESS
Evaluation (Steps One, Two, and Three)
Selecting Design Approaches (Step Four)
Refinement (Step Five)
Documentation (Step Six)
PRODUCIBILITY IN THE DESIGN PROCESS
Producibility Engineering and Planning (PEP) Measures
Purpose of PEP Measures
PEP Limits and Constraints
PEP Measures in the Acquisition Process
Responsibility
Producibility Program Plan
Data Item Description Producibility Program Plan
Description Purpose
Application
References
Preparation Instructions
Producibility Objectives
Need for Requirement
Use of Data
Data Item Description Producibility Analysis
Description /Purpose
Application
References
Preparation Instructions
PRODUCIBILITY ENGINEERING DURING ACQUISITION
CONCEPTUAL PHASE
Producibility Considerations
Implementation
Technical Reviews
VALIDATION PHASE
Producibility Considerations
Implementation
Technical Reviews
FULL-SCALE DEVELOPMENT PHASE
Producibility Considerations
Implementation
Technical Reviews
PRODUCTION AND DEPLOYMENT PHASE
Producibility Considerations in Initial Production
Implementation
PROGRAM PHASE SUMMARY
USEFULL TECHNIQUES FOR PRODUCIBILITY ENGINEERS
COST ESTIMATING
The Technical Estimate
Historical Data
Predetermined Time Standards
Elemental Standard Data
NETWORK TECHNIQUES
Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT)
Critical Path Method (CPM)
Arrow Diagrams
Bar Charts
Daily Automatic Rescheduling Technique
Decision Box Technique
SIMULATION
Deterministic Model
Stochastic Model
Simulation Programs
Introduction
Risk Analysis Program
BREAK-EVEN ANALYSIS
SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS
VALUE ENGINEERING 2-34
Product Selection 2-35
Determination of Function 2-35
Information Gathering 2-35
Development of Alternatives 2-36
Cost Analysis of Alternatives 2-36
Testing and Verification 2-36
Proposal Submission and Follow-Up 2-36
RELEVANCE TREES 2-36
An Auditing Tool 2-37
Cost Reduction in Manufacturing 2-37
Other Applications 2-37
TOLERANCE ANALYSIS 2-38
Data Collection 2-38
Data Analysis 2-38
Recommendations 2-39
SUMMARY 2-39
REFERENCES

CHAPTER 3
COMMON PRODUCIBILITY CONSIDERATIONS
INTRODUCTION
IMPACT OF DRAWINGS AND SPECICATIONS
DESIGN PROCESS RESTRICTIONS
DOCUMENTATION PROCESS RESTRICTIONS
DRAWING PROCESS RESTRICTIONS
SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS
The Military Specification
The Military Standard
Commercial Specifications and Standards
Application of Standards and Specifications
Use of Commercial Specifications
TOLERANCES AND SURFACE FINISHES
Relationship of Surface Roughness and Tolerance
Application of Surface Finishes
GUIDELINES FOR PRODUCIBILITY REVIEW OF DRAWINGS
AND SPECIFICATIONS
General Checklist for Common Producibility Considerations
Metric Conversion
COMPONENT SELECTION
THE NEED FOR STANDARDIZATION
Advantages of Standard Components
Cost Savings Through Standardization
COMPONENT RELIABIIITY
Reliability and Life Characteristics
Economic Impact of Reliability
CONSIDERATION OF REPAIR PARTS
IMPACT OF MATERIAL SELECTION ON PRODUCIBILITY
MATERIAL COST FACTORS
MATERIAL AVAILABILITY FACTORS
MANUFACTURING PROCESS SELECTION
INTERRELATIONSHIP OF DESIGN, MATERIAL, AND MANUFACTURING PROCESS MANUFACTURING PROCESS AVAILABILITY
Inadequate Facilities
Restriction to Single Manufacturing Process
Design Restrictions Prohibit Manufacturing
Design Not Conducive to Economic Processing
Design Specifies Proprietary Process
Inadequate Use of Facilities
Line Balancing
Scheduling
Facility Planning
Group Technology
Identification of Critical Resources
MANUFACTURING PROCESS ALTERNATIVES
Quality Overlap of Processes
Size and Quantity Overlap of Processes
IMPACT OF PRODUCTION QUANTITY ON DESIGN DECISIONS
DESIGNING FOR HIGH PRODUCTION RATES
Internal Corner Radii
Material Consumption
High Production Rate Assembly
High Production Rate Design
DESIGNING FOR LOW PRODUCTION RATES
Deep Drawing Thin Wall Shapes
Designing for Numerical Control
IMPACT OF EXPENDABLE AND NONEXPENDABLE ITEMS
EXPENDABLE, HIGH-DENSITY ISSUE
Material Considerations
Production Processes
EXPENDABLE, LOW-DENSITY ISSUE
Production Processes
Production Planning
NONEXPENDABLE, HIGH-DENSITY ISSUE
Material Selection Processes
Manufacturing Process Selection
Designing for Simplicity
Human Factors
NONEXPENDABLE, LOW-DENSITY ISSUE
Longer Service Life
Repair Parts Provisioning
QUALITY ASSURANCE CONSIDERATIONS FOR PRODUCIBILITY
ONE-HUNDRED-PERCENT INSPECTION
SAMPLING INSPECTION
Single Sampling Plan
Double Sampling Plan
Multiple Sampling Plan
ATTRIBUTE INSPECTION METHOD
VARIABLE INSPECTION METHOD
SELECTION OF QUALITY LEVEL
Limiting Quality (LQ)
Average Outgoing Quality (AOQ)
Acceptable Quality Level (AQL)
Process Capability
Cost of Rework
Cost of Inspection
SAMPLING RISKS
Statistical Considerations
Operating Characteristic Curves
DESIGN SIMPLIFICATION FOR PRODUCIBILITY
NEAR NET SHAPE
Near Net Shape Forgings
Near Net Shape Casting
REDUCED FINAL ASSEMBLY COSTS
Wrench Clearances
Fasteners
Problem Areas
Materials
Cavity Preparation
Fastener/Cavity Interface
Types and Tooling
Fatigue
Corrosion
costs
COMBINING COMPONENTS
Metal Forming
Casting
Extrusion
Summary
REFERENCES

CHAPTER 4
PRODUCIBILITY CONSIDERATIONS FOR METAL COMPONENTS
GENERAL PRODUCIBILITY CONSIDERATIONS
MAJOR MATERIAL CONSIDERATIONS
Applications and Producibility
Material Selection Factors
Ultimate Tensile Strength
Elastic Limit
Yield Point
Yield Strength
Modulus of Elasticity
Elongation
Ductility
Malleability
Hardness
Damping Capacity
Strength-to-Weight Ratio (STWR)
Notch Toughness
Fatigue Properties
Elevated Temperature Properties
Lower Temperature Properties
Corrosion Resistance
Electromotive Potential
Electrical Properties (Resistance)
Weldability
Density
Specific Heat
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
Cost Considerations
Material Availability
Commercial Availability
Military Requirements
Material-Related Manufacturing Processes
MANUFACTURING PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
Primary Manufacturing Processes
Forming
Reduction
Fabrication or Joining
Finishing
Secondary Manufacturing Processes
Traditional Secondary Manufacturing Processes
Nontraditional Secondary Manufacturing Processes
Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM)
Hydrodynamic Machining
Electrochemical Deburring
Electrochemical Discharge Grinding
Electrochemical Grinding
Electrical Discharge Sawing
Traveling Wire EDM
Laser Beam Machining
Laser Beam Torch
Chemical Machining
Electrochemical Machining (ECM)
Numerical Control Machine (NCM)
Computer Numerical Control (CNC) and Direct Numerical Control (DNC)
Machines
Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM)
Summary
Thermal Conditioning Processes
Heat-Treating
Annealing
Normalizing
Surface Hardening Methods
Finishing Processes
Mechanical Finishing
Nontraditional Finishing
Cleaning Processes
Protective Coatings
TEST AND INSPECTION
Material Test and Inspection
Magnetic Particle Testing
Radiography
Ultrasonic Testing
Penetrants
Component Test and Inspection
General Shop Measuring Instruments
Surface Measurements
NC Measuring Machines
SHEET METAL COMPONENTS
MAJOR MATERIAL CONSIDERATIONS
Materials
Material Properties and Producibility
Cost Consideration
Material Availability
Material-Related Manufacturing Process
MANUFACTURING PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
Traditional Secondary Manufacturing Processes
Stamping
Punching
Forming
Spinning
Conventional Spinning
Displacement Spinning
Deep Drawing
Nontraditional Secondary Manufacturing Processes
Numerical Control Machines (NCM)
NET SHAPE OR MACHINED METAL COMPONENTS (NS/MMC)
MAJOR MATERIAL CONSIDERATIONS
Materials
Material Properties and Producibility
Cost Considerations
Material Availability
Material-Related Manufacturing Processes
Lot Sizes and Producibility
MANUFACTURING PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
Traditional Secondary Manufacturing Processes
Casting
Sand Casting
Permanent Mold Casting
Investment Casting
Die Casting
Forging
Drop or Hammer Forging
Rotary Forging
Press Forging
Machine Forging
Forgings vs Machining From Bar Stock
Powder Metallurgy
Extruding
Direct Extrusion
Coextrusion
Cold Extrusion
Machining
Turning
Milling
Drilling
Reaming
Broaching
Boring
Hobbing
Sawing
Trepanning
Grinding
Planing
Shaping
Summary
Nontraditional Secondary Manufacturing Processes
Numerical Control Machining (NCM)
NCM Processes
HEAVY STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS
MAJOR MATERIAL CONSIDERATIONS
Materials
Material Selection Factors
Cost Considerations
Material Availability
Material-Related Manufacturing Processes
MANUFACTURING PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
Traditional Secondary Manufacturing Processes
Machining Processes
Planing
Slotting
Turning
Cutting Processes
Nontraditional Secondary Manufacturing Processes
Machining and Cutting Processes
NC Machining (NCM)
NC Flame Cutting
Plasma Arc Burning
NC Frame Bending
MAJOR PRODUCIBILITY PROBLEMS
HEAT-TREAT WARPAGE
Cause and Effect
Solution
SQUARE CORNERS ON MACHINED INTERIOR CONTOURS
Cause and Effect
Solution
FLAT BOTTOM BLIND HOLES
Cause and Effect
Solution
SQUARE CORNERS ON DRAWN SHEET EXTERIOR
Cause and Effect
Solution
DRILLED HOLE TOLERANCING
Cause and Effect
Solution
FAILURE TO USE AVAILABLE MATERIAL
Cause and Effect
Solution
UNREALISTIC TOLERANCES
Cause and Effect
Solution
UNREALISTIC INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS
Cause and Effect
Solution
PRODUCT WEIGHT
4-591 Cause and Effect
4-592 Solution
4-510 SURFACE STRESSES IN CASTINGS
4-5101 Cause and Effect
4-5102 Solution
REFERENCES

CHAPTER 5
PRODUCIBILITY CONSIDERATIONS FOR PLASTIC COMPONENTS
INTRODUCTION
MAJOR MATERIAL CONSIDERATIONS
STRENGTH AND STIFFNESS
CREEP BEHAVIOR
SELECTION OF MATERIAL CONSTANTS
IMPACT RESISTANCE
CHEMICAL RESISTANCE
COMPARATIVE PROPERTIES
COMMERCIAL AVAILABILITY
COST CONSIDERATIONS
Raw Material Costs
Manufacturing Costs
MANUFACTURING PROCESSES AND CONSIDERATIONS
INJECTION MOLDING
Injection Molding Thermoplastics
Injection Molding Thermoses
EXTRUSION PROCESSES
COMPRESSION MOLDING
TRANSFER MOLDING
THERMOFORMING
BLOW MOLDING
ROTATIONAL MOLDING
MECHANICAL FORMING
Blanking
Stamping
Forging
CASTING
Casting Acrylics
Casting Nylon
Casting Epoxy
MACHINING
DESIGN AND PRODUCIBILITY
Molded Components
Mold Design
ASSEMBLY AND JOINING TECHNIQUES
Adhesive Bonding
Mechanical Fastening
Screws
Threaded Metal Inserts
Stamped Metal Screw Receivers
Drive Pin Fasteners
Heat Sealing
Ultrasonic Bonding
Ultrasonic Staking
Spin Welding
Vibration Welding
Hot Gas Welding
Electromagnetic Bonding
FINISHING PROCESSES
Electroplating
Vacuum Metallizing
Painting
TESTING AND EVALUATION
STANDARDIZED TEST PROCEDURES
Mechanical Properties
Thermal Properties
Electrical Properties
Permanence Properties
PRACTICAL TESTING OF COMPONENTS
NONTRADITIONAL PLASTICS AND PROCESSES
THERMOPLASTIC ELASTOMERS
REACTION INJECTION MOLDING
EXAMPLES OF PRCODUCIBILITY
TOLERANCES
CORRECT MATERIAL GRADE
LOCATION OF GATES
PRODUCTION PROCESS PLANNING
OVERSTRESSED THREADS
MOLD PARTING LINES
INCREASED PRODUCIBILITY WITH PLASTIC
STRESS CONCENTRATION
FIBER ORIENTATION
REFERENCES

CHAPTER 6
PRODUCIBILITY CONSIDERATIONS FOR COMPOSITE COMPONENTS
INTRODUCTION
MAJOR MATERIAL CONSIDERATIONS
REINFORCEMENTS
Fiberglass Reinforcements
Graphite Reinforcements
Aramid Reinforcements
Boron Reinforcements
Hybrid Reinforcements
Miscellaneous Reinforcements
RESIN SYSTEMS
Polyester Resins
Vinyl Esters
Epoxy Resins
Polyimide Resins
PREIMPREGNATED MATERIALS
METAL MATRIX COMPOSITES
COMPOSITE PROPERTIES
Filamentary Composites
Short Fiber Composites
Comparative Properties
COST CONSIDERATIONS AND PRODUCIBILITY
Raw Material Costs
Manufacturing Costs
MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
OPEN MOLDS (CONTACT MOLDING)
Hand Lay-Up
Spray Up
MATCHED DIE MOLDING
Preform Molding
Directed Fiber Preforms
Plenum Chamber Preforms
Mat Molding
Molding Fabrics
Cold Molding 0 $ ,
Sheet, Bulk, and Thick Molding Compounds (SMC, BMC, and TMC)
Matched Dies
Press Requirements
RESIN TRANSER MOLDING (RTM)
CENTRIFUGAL CASTING
PULTRUSION
FILAMENT WINDING
BAG MOLDING PROCESSES
STRUCTURAL SANDWICH PANELS
STAMPING THERMOPLASTIC SHEET
MACHINING
JOINING METHODS
Mechanical Fastenrs
Adhesive Bonding
TESTING, INSPECTION, AND QUALITY CONTROL
TESTING
INSPECTION
QUALITY CONTROL
DESIGN OF COMPONENTS FOR PRODUCIBILITY
SELECTION OF MATERIALS AND FABRICATION PROCESSES
PROCESS DESIGN GUIDES
DESIGNING; WITH HIGH-PERFORMANCE COMPOSITES
REFERENCES

CHAPTER 7
PRODUCIBILITY CONSIDERATIONS FOR MECHANICAL ASSEMBLIES
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
AUTOMATIC MACHINE ASSEMBLY
CONSIDERATIONS FOR ASSEMBLY BY MACHINE
DESIGNING FOR ASSEMBLY
MAJOR FACTORS IN DESIGNING FOR ASSEMBLY
PRODUCIBILITY CONSIDERATIONS IN THE TOTAL ASSEMBLY
DESIGN SIMPLIFICATION
Simplification by Manufacturing Process
Simplification in the Assembly Process
Guidelines for Simplification
HUMAN FACTORS AND MECHANICAL CONSTRAINTS
Human Factors
Mechanical Assembly Constraints
Mechanical Decision Making
Assembly Forces
Assembly Motions
Assembly Tooling
Product Design as an Assembly Aid
ASSEMBLY SEQUENCE
Efficient Assembly Sequences
Assembly Method
Assembly Process
Assembly Sequence for In-Process Inspection and Repair
DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR HIGH-VOLUME ASSEMBLY
Work Division
Assembly Line Balancing
DESIGN GUlDANCE FOR THE TOTAL ASSEMBLY
Datum Surface
Location Points
Vertical Build Assembly
Single Assembly Orientation
Accessibility of Important Components
Standardize
PRODUCIBILITY CONSIDERATIONS FOR INDIVIDUAL COMPONENTS
OF AN ASSEMBLY
EASE OF ASSEMBLY
Elimination of Sharp Corners
Self-Guiding Assemblies
Component Design to Facilitate Assembly
FEEDING, ORIENTING, AND LOADING
Component Design to Facilitate Feeding
Fabrication at Assembly
Prepackaged Components
Bulk Delivery of Components
Feeding Methods
Orienting Methods
Statistical Technique
Polarizing Technique
Other Techniques
Design to Minimize Orientation Problems
Components That Tangle
Critical Assembly Dimensions
Tolerances and the Assembly Process
Loading Methods
FASTENING AND JOINING
THREADED FASTENERS
FASTENING BY PRESSURE
7-421 Riveting
7-422 Swaging
7-423 Staking
7-424 Crimping
7-425 Force Fitting
FASTENING BY HEAT
Soldering
Brazing
Torch Brazing
Furnace Brazing
Induction Brazing
Dip Brazing
Resistance Brazing
Welding
Arc Welding
Resistance Welding
Gas Welding
Thermit Welding
Electron Beam Welding
Ultrasonic Welding
Summary
Design Considerations
Heat Sealing
SOME SUGGESTED FASTENING METHODS
Integral Method
Separate Fastening Medium
Self-Tapping Screws
Two-Component Fastening Medium
Screws
Encapsulation
Selecting a Fastener
BASIC RULES FOR PRODUCIBILITY IN ASSEMBLY
RULES FOR PRODLUCT DESIGN
RULES FOR DESIGN OF COMPONENTS
NONTRADITIONAL ASSEMBLY TECHNIQUES
STATE OF THE ART
APPLICATIONS
INSPECTION AND Testing
GAGING FOR SELECTIVE ASSEMBLY
BALANCING AT ASSEMBLY
LEAK TESTING
SUMMARY
REFERENCES

CHAPTER 8
PRODUCIBILITY CONSIDERATIONS FOR ELECTRONICS
INTRODUCTION
PART SELECTION AND CONTROL
PART CONTROL
Parts Selection
Provision of Specifications
PART SELECTION GUIDELINES
Microcircuits
Semiconductor Devices
Resistors
Variable Resistors
Resistor Networks

Capacitors
Relay s
Other Parts
Cabling
PART SCREENING
LIFE CYCLE COST- (LCC)
MANUFACTURING; PROCESSES
NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN LSI CHIPS
HMOS
VMOS
SOS
12L
SEMICONDUCTOR PHOTOLITHOGRAPHY TECHNOLOGY
PLASTIC ENCAPSULATED AND POLYMER SEALED DEVICES
HYBRID MICROCIRCUITS
PACKAGING TO WITHSTAND ENVIRONMENT
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS
ENVIRONMENTAL RESISTANCE PROVISIONS
Thermal Protection
Mechanical Protection
Shock and Vibration Protection
Humidity, Salt Air, Sand, and Dust Protection
Radiation Protection
GENERAL PACKAGING CONSIDERATIONS
ASSEMBLY AND PACKAGING CONSIDERATIONS
PC BOARDS: TRENDS
FLAT CABLE
SOLDERING
Hand Soldering
Wave Soldering
Cascade Soldering (Reflow Lap Soldering)
Fluxes and Fluxing Methods
SOLDERLESS WRAP Electrical CONNECTIONS
STITCH W1RING
FLEXIBLE, ETCHED CIRCUITS
COMPONENT INSERTION EQUIPMENT
Manual Insertion and Semiautomatic Systems
Fully Automatic Systems
DESIGN TO MINIMIZE RELIABILITY DEGRADATION DURING
PRODUCTION AND USE
CONTRIBUTIONS TO RELIABILITY DEGRADATION
DESIGN FOR EASE OF INSPECTION AND EASE OF MAINTENANCE
Hardware Partitioning
Fault Diagnosis and Isolation
TESTS AND PARTS EQUIPMENT USED ON THE PRODUTCTION LINE
DISCRETE COMPONENT TESTING
In-Process Semiconductor Device Testing
Elevated Temperature IC Testing
IN-CIRCUIT BOARD TESTER
Testing of Microprocessors and PCB Assemblies
LSI Schmoo Tests
Infrared Thermal Imaging
Circuit Analyses for PCB Testing

Basic Types of Analyzers 8-91
8-726 Digital Testing Oscilloscope 8-91
8-73 SELECTIVE AUTOMATION 8-92
REFERENCES 8-92

CHAPTER 9
PRODUCIBILITY CONSIDERATIONS FOR OTHER ITEMS
PROPELLANTS AND EXPLOSIVES
PROPELLANTS
Material Selection Process
Mechanical Properties
Propellant Classes and Characteristics
Propellant Ingredient Descriptions
Applications of Plastic Propellants
Manufacturing processes
Nitrocellulose
Nitroguanidine
Nitroglycerin
Solvent Extrusion
Rolled Sheet
Solventless Extrusion
Cast Double Base
Slurry Casting
Inert Simulants to Reproduce Physical Properties
Inert Simulants to Reproduce Manufacturing Properties
EXPLOSIVES
Material Selection Factors
Physical Properties
Material Availability
Applications
Manufacturing Processes
Black Powder
Composition B
Composition C-4
PB-RDX
TNT
Dynamite
Tritonal
Octol 70/30
Composite Explosives
Compatibility of Materials
OPTICAL COMPONENTS
OPTICAL MATERIALS
Glass
Float Process
Flat Draw Process
Cast and Rolled Process
The Pot Process
Physical Properties
Crystals
Natural Crystals
Artificial Crystals
Plastics
OPTICAL COMPONENT MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
Acquiring the Blank
Rough Grinding l
Curve Generators
Finish Grinding or Smoothing
Polishing
Edging and Chamfering
SPECIFYING OPTICAL REQUIREMENTS
INSPECTION AND TEST PRoCEDURES
Refractive Index
Strains
Newton Rings
FIBER OPTICS
CERAMICS
CERAMIC MATERIAL SELECTION FACTORS
Ceramic Material Properties
Density
Thermal Expansion
Absorption
Modulus of Elasticity
Compressive, Tensile, and Transverse Strengths
Maximum Service Temperature
Dielectric Constant
Hardness
Material Availability
Material Cost
CERAMIC MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
Implied Manufacturing Processes
Manufacturing Process Descriptions
Machining
Extruding
Pressing
Injection Molding
Sintering
Metallizing
Slip Casting
Flame Spraying
TOLERANCES
TEXTILE COMPONENTS
MATERIAL CONSIDERATIONS
Natural Fibers
Synthetic Fibers
Synthetic Fiber Production
Synthetic Fiber Forms and Physical Properties
MANUFACTURING PROCESS CONSIDERATIONS
Patternmaking and Grading
The Cutting Room
Cutting Equipment
The Cutting Process
Sewing and Assembly
Stitches
Seams

Stitchings
Characteristics of Seams and Stitchings
Strength
Elasticity
Durability
Security
Appearance
REFERENCES
APPENDIX A
INFORMATION SOURCES
INTRODUCTION
TECHNICAL BOOKS
JOURNALS OR PERIODICALS
DOCUMENTATION AND INFORMATION ANALYSIS CENTERS !
PROFESSIONAL AND TRADE ASSOCIATIONS
INFORMATION SOURCES
DEFENSE TECHNICAL INFORMATION CENTER (DTIC)
General
Data Acquisition
NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE (NTIS)
General
Data Acquisition
SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION FACILITY (STIF)
General
Data Acquisition ,
US DEPARTMENT OF- ENERGY TECHNICAL INFORMATION
CENTER (DOE-TIC)
General
Data Acquisition
ARMY MATERIALS AND MECHANICS RESEARCH CENTER (AMMRC)
GENERAL PRODUCIBILITY CONSIDERATION INFORMATION SOURCES
DARCOM ENGINEERING DESIGN HANDBOOKS
MILITARY STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATIONS
MANTECH JOURNAl
METAL COMPONENT PRODUCIBILITY INFORMATION
TECHNICAL BOOKS
JOURNALS AND PERIODICALS
DOCUMENTATION AND INFORMATION ANALYSIS CENTERS
Machinability Data Center (MDC)
Metals and Ceramics Information Center (MCIC)
Nondestructive Testing Information Analysis Center (NTIAC)
Thermophysical and Electronic Propterties Information Analysis Center (TEPIAC)
Data Acquisition
PROFESSIONAL AND TRADE ASSOCIATIONS
PLASTIC COMPONENT INFORMATION SOURCES
TECHNICAL BOOKS
JOURNALS AND PERIODICALS
DOCUMENTATION AND INFORMATION ANALYSIS CENTERS
The Plastics Technical Evaluation Center (PLASTEC)
General
Data Acquisition
PROFESSIONAL AND TRADE ASSOCIATIONS

COMPOSITE COMPONENT INFORMATION SOURCES
TECHNICAL BOOKS
JOURNALS AND PERIODICALS
DOCUMENTATION AND INFORMATION ANALYSIS CENTERS
Plastics Technical Evaluation Center (PLASTEC)
General
Data Acquisition
Metals and Ceramics Information Center (MCIC)
General
Data Acquisition
PROFESSIONAL AND TRADE ASSOCIATIONS
MECHANICAL ASSEMBLY INFORMATION SOURCES
TECHNICAL BOOKS
JOURNALS AND PERIODICALS
PROFESSIONAL AND TRADE ASSOCIATIONS
ELECTRONIC COMPONENT INFORMATION SOURCES
TECHNICAL BOOKS
JOURNALS AND PERIODICALS
DOCUMENTATION AND INFORMATION ANALYSIS CENTERS
Thermophysical and Electronic Properties Information Analysis Center (TEPIAC)
General
Data Acquisition
Reliability Analysis Center (RAC)
General
Data Acquisition
PROPELLANTS AND EXPLOSIVES, OPTICS, CERAMICS, AND TEXTILE
INFORMATION SOURCES
TECHNICAL BOOKS
Propellants and Explosives
Optics
Ceramics
Textiles
JOURNALS AND PERIODICALS
Propellants and Explosives
Optics
Ceramics
Textiles
PROFESSIONAL AND TRADE ASSOCIATIONS
Propellants and Explosives
Optics
Ceramics
Textiles
METALS AND CERAMICS INFORMATION CENTER (MCIC)
INDEX

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