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Engineering Design Handbook Design Guidance for Producibility

Manufacturing, Engineering and Design

Engineering Design Handbook - Design Guidance for Producibility
U.S. Army

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As one of the handbooks in the Army Engineering Design Handbook Series, this Design Guidance for Producibility was prepared in accordance with the goals of the Series. In general, the Army Engineering Design Handbooks contain basic information and fundamental data essential in the design and development of Army materiel and systems. They are authoritative references for practical and quantitative facts helpful in the design and development of materiel meeting the tactical and technical needs of the Army. They incorporate sound and proven principles of design; at the same time they direct attention to the consideration of production, maintainability, human factors, and related problems during the design and development stages. The handbooks contain much information which is not available in open literature; they are revised periodically to ensure that their contents reflect the latest technologies.

TOC

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ix
LIST OF TABLES xüi
FOREWORD xvi
PREFACE xviii
PART ONE: THE ARMY DESIGN ENVIRONMENT
CHAPTER 1
BASIC CONCEPTS AND CONSIDERATIONS
INTRODUCTION 1-1
DEFINITION OF PRODUCIBILITY 1-1
PRODUCIBILITY IN DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 1-1
Concept Formulation Phase 1-4
Definition Phase 1-4
Development andProduction Phase 1-4
IDENTIFYING PRODUCIBILITY OBJECTIVES 1-5
REFERENCES 1-8
ROLE OF CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT 2-1
PRODUCIBILITY AND THE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 2-1
Scope 2-1
Applicable Documents 2-1
Requirements 2-1
Performance 2-2
Physical Characteristics 2-7
Supply and Maintenance 2-7
Personnel and Training 2-7
System Definition 2-7
Requirements for Primary Functional Areas 2-7
System Design and Construction Standards 2-8
Value Engineering 2-8
Publications 2-8
Test and Evaluation Requirements 2-8
Preparation for Delivery 2-9
Objectives and Constraints 2-9
Evaluating the System Description 2-9
DEVELOPMENT DESCRIPTION 2-12
TECHNICAL DATA PACKAGE 2-12
Product Specification 2-13
Data List 2-13
Parts List 2-13
Drawings 2-13
Quality Assurance Data 2-13
Government Standards and Specifications 2-21
Industry Standards and Specifications 2-21
End Item Final Inspection Requirements (EIFIR) 2-21
REVISION SYSTEM 2-21

Engineering Change Proposals (ECP's) 2-21
Class of Revision 2-21
Notice of Revision (NOR) and Engineering Revision Notice (ERN) 2-27
THE TDP AND THE PRODUCTION ENVIRONMENT 2-27
Goals of TDP Preparation 2-27
TDP Drawings and Production 2-27
Some Problems of Communication 2-27
Conclusion 2-28
REFERENCES 2-28
CHAPTER 3
THE SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO DESIGN
WHY BE SYSTEMATIC? 3-1
THE ITERATIVE PROCESS 3-1
THE SYSTEMATIC APPROACH 3-6
APPLICATION TO THE DESIGN FUNCTION 3-6
Evaluation 3-7
The Analysis 3-7
Refinement » 3-8
REFERENCES 3-8
CHAPTER 4
PLANNING FOR PRODUCIBILITY
THE NEED FOR PLANNING 4-1
PERSPECTIVE 4-1
Getting the Perspective 4-1
Reliability 4-2
Maintainability 4-2
Safety 4-3
Human Factors Engineering 4-3
Life Support 4-3
Value Engineering 4-4
Standardization 4-4
Configuration Management 4-4
Interface Management 4-4
Logistic Management 4-4
Quality Assurance 4-5
The Role of Quality Assurance 4-5
Engineering Design and Mockup Reviews 4-5
CHECKLISTS 4-8
REFERENCES 4-8
THE NATURE OF THE PROBLEM 5-1
CAUSES OF DEFICIENCIES 5-1
ERRORS OF COMMISSION AND OMISSION 5-1
Excessive Complexity 5-1
Production Restrictiveness 5-2
Conflicting Direction 5-2
Darn Fool (DF) Error 5-2
Inadequate Planning 5-2
Inadequate Specification and Insufficient Detail 5-2
CHAPTER 6
SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS
"MIL-SPECS" PRO AND CON 6-1
Technology 6-1
Economics 6-1
Communications 6-1
APPLICATION OF STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATION TREES 6-5
Top Level Requirements Specifications 6-7
Component 6-7
Contract End Item (CEI) 6-7
Critical Component 6-7
Specification Control Log . 6-7
Design Specification 6-7
Updating the Specification Tree 6-7
A MATERIAL SPECIFICATION SYSTEM UTILIZED IN INDUSTRY 6-8
REFERENCES 6-9
CHAPTER 7
VALUE ENGINEERING TECHNIQUES
WHAT IS VALUE ENGINEERING? 7-1
APPLICATIONS 7-1
FRINGE EFFECTS 7-10
CHECKLISTS 7-10
WORKSHEETS 7-10
REFERENCES 7-11
CHAPTER 8
SELECTION OF MATERIALS AND PROCESSES
INTRODUCTION 8-1
SELECTION CRITERIA 8-1
COST-EFFECTIVENESS 8-2
SELECTION APPROACH 8-4
FUTURE POTENTIALS 8-5
ROLE OF DECISION PHILOSOPHY 8-5
THE DECISION PROCESS 8-6
REFERENCES 8-10

GENERAL 9-1
PURPOSE 9-1
MATERIAL SELECTION FACTORS 9-1
MATERIAL PRODUCIBILITY OBJECTIVES 9-1
AVAILABILITY 94Critical Materials 9-1
Standard Mill Products 9-2
Metal Shapes 9-2
Preplated, Precoated, and Clad Materials 9-2
POWDER METALLURGY 9-24
PLASTICS 9-31
COSTS 9-32
ACCIDENT HAZARDS 9-37
INSPECTION 9-49
Magnetic Particle Testing 9-49
Radiography 9-49
Ultrasonic Testing 9-49
Penetrants 9-49
CANDIDATE MATERIALS 9-50
REFERENCES 9-50
CHAPTER 10
FABRICATION PROCESSES
GENERAL 10-1
PRIMARY FABRICATION PROCESSES 10-1
Casting 10-1
Forging 10-1
Extrusion 10-7
SECONDARY FABRICATION PROCESSES 10-7
Material Removal 10-8
Machinability 10-8
Conventional Mechanical Machining Processes 10-9
Boring Operations 10-9
Broaching Operations 10-9
Drilling Operations 10-12
Generating or Gear Shaper Operations 10-12
Hobbing Operations 10-12
Milling Operations 10-13
Planing Operations 10-13
Reaming Operations 10-13
Shaping Operations 10-13
Slotting Operations 10-13
Trepanning Operations 10-13
Turning Operations 10-14
Other Machining Processes 10-14
Grinding 10-14
Cylindrical Grinding 10-14
Centerless Grinding 10-14
Surface Grinding 10-19
Abrasive Belt Grinding 10-19
Other Grinding Methods 10-19
Cutting 10-19
Flame Cutting 10-19
Sawing 10-19
Band Sawing 10-19
Friction Band Sawing 10-21
Descaling 11-12
Paint Stripping or Removing 11-12
JOINING METHODS
GENERAL 12-1
MECHANICAL FASTENING 12-1
METALLURGICAL JOINING 12-1
Welding 12-1
Arc Welding 12-2
Coated Electrode Arc Welding 12-2
Inert Gas Metal Arc Consumable Electrode Welding 12-2
Inert Gas Tungsten Arc Welding 12-5
Submerged Arc Welding 12-5
Atomic Hydrogen Welding 12-5
Plasma Arc Welding 12-5
Resistance Welding 12-5
Gas Welding 12-6
Thermit Welding 12-6
Electron Beam Welding 12-6
Ultrasonic Welding 12-7
Summary 12-7
Soldering 12-7
Solid-state Bonding 12-8
Roll Bonding 12-8
Friction Bonding 12-8
Extrusion Bonding 12-8
Explosive Bonding 12-8
Hot Press, Isostatic Pressure, and Vacuum Furnace Building 12-8
Brazing 12-8
Torch Brazing 12-9
Furnace Brazing 12-9
Flow Brazing 12-10
Ultrasonic Brazing 12-10
Block Brazing 12-10
CHEMICAL JOINING 12-10
Adhesives 12-10
Natural Adhesives 12-11
Induction Brazing 12-9
Dip Brazing 12-9
Resistance Brazing 12-10
Thermoplastic Adhesives 12-11
Thermosetting Adhesives 12-11
Elastomeric Adhesives 12-11
COATING MATERIALS AND METHODS
GENERAL 13-1
NATURE OF CORROSION 13-1
Types of Corrosion 13-1

STUDYING THE CORROSION PROBLEM 13-2
COATING METHODS AND MATERIALS 13-3
Metallurgical Coatings 13-3
Flame-sprayed Coatings 13-3
Weld Deposition Coatings 13-5
Diffusion Coatings 13-5
Hot Dipped Metal Coatings 13-5
Electrochemical Coatings 13-5
Electroplating 13-5
Anodizing 13-10
Hard Anodizing 13-10
Chemical Coatings , 13-10
Phosphate Coatings 13-10
1Chromate Coatings 13_H
Mechanical Coating 13-11
1 Elastomer Coating 13-11
Vitreous Enamel Coatings 13-11
Paint, Varnish, Lacquer, and Related Coatings 13-11
PART THREE: INFORMATION SOURCES
APPENDIX A
THE TECHNICAL INFORMATION ENVIRONMENT
A-l INTRODUCTION A-l
A-2 SEARCHING THE LITERATURE A-l
A-2.1 Information Search Problems A-l
A-2.2 Information Roadmapping A-l
A-2.3 Developing an Information Roadmap A-2
A-2.3.1 Selection of Terms A-2
A-2.3.2 Ranking by Degree of Relationship A-3
A-3 SOURCES OF TECHNICAL INFORMATION AND DATA A-3
A-3.1 Technical Books A-3
A-3.2 Journals and Periodicals A-3
A-3.3 Documentation and Information Analysis Centers A-3
A-3.4 Abstracting and Indexing Services A-17
A-3.5 Scientific and Technical Organizations A-17
A-3.6 Trade, Business, and Commercial Organizations A-17
REFERENCES A-28

THE DESIGN ENVIRONMENT
B-l INTRODUCTION B-l
B-2 Design Environment Generic Trees B-l
B-3 BIBLIOGRAPHY B-I
B-3.1 System Description B-l
B-3.1.1 Scope B-4
B-3.1.2 Applicable Documents B-5
B-3.1.3 Requirements B-6
B-3.1.3.1 Reliability B-7
B-3.1.3.2 Maintainability , B-8
B-3.1.3.3 Human Performance B-8

B-3.1.3.4 Safety B-9
B-3.1.3.5 Supply and Maintenance B-10
B-3.1.3.6 Functional Interfaces B-J1
B-3.1.3.7 Electrical B-ll
B-3.1.3.8 Electromagnetic Interference B-ll
B-3.1.3.9 Standard Commercial and Qualified Parts B-ll
B-3.1.3.10 Materials, Products, and Processes B-ll
B-3.1.3.11 Period and Conditions of Storage B-12
B-3.1.3.12 Identification and Marking B-12
B-3.1.3.13 System Design and Construction Standards-Design Engineering Areas B-12
B-3.1.4 Value Engineering B-13
B-3.1.5 Test and Evaluation B-13
B-3.1.6 Preparation for Delivery B-14
APPENDIX C
THE PRODUCTION ENVIRONMENT
C-l INTRODUCTION C-I
C-2 PRODUCTION ENVIRONMENT GENERIC TREES C-l
C-3 BIBLIOGRAPHY C-l
C-3.1 Materials C-l
C-3.1.1 Metals, Ferrous and Nonferrous C-l
C-3.1.2 Ceramics C-2
C-3.1.3 Plastics C-2
C-3.1.4 Elastomers C-2
C-3.1.5 Organic Materials C-2
C-3.1.6 Glass, Carbon, and Mica C-2
C-3.2 Fabrication, Primary and Secondary C-2
C-3.2.1 Fabrication, Primary C-3
C-3.2.2 Fabrication, Secondary C-3
C-3.3 Physical Metallurgy C-4
C-3.4 Cleaning C-4
C-3.5 Joining C-4
C-3.6 Coating C-4

THE LOGISTIC ENVIRONMENT
INTRODUCTION D-l
FUNCTION OF DEFENSE LOGISTICS
STUDIES INFORMATION EXCHANGE (DLSIE) D-l
How to Requisition Documents

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