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Six Sigma for Electronics Design and Manufacturing

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Six Sigma for Electronics Design and Manufacturing

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Preface

Six sigma is becoming more important as companies compete in a worldwide market for high-quality, low-cost products. Successful implementations of six sigma in different companies, large and small, do not follow identical scripts. The tools and methodologies of six sigma are fused with the company’s culture to create a unique and successful blend in each instance.

This book is intended to introduce and familiarize design, production, quality, and process engineers and their managers with many of the issues regarding the use of six sigma quality in design and manufacturing of electronic products, and how to resolve them. It is based on my experience in practicing, consulting, and teaching six sigma and its techniques over the last 15 years. During that time, I confronted many engineers’ natural reservation about six sigma: its assumptions are too arbitrary, it is too difficult to achieve, it works only for large companies, it is too expensive to implement, it works only for manufacturing, not for design, and so on. They continuously challenged me to apply it in their own areas of interest, presenting me with many difficult design and manufacturing six sigma application problems to solve. At the same time, I was involved with many companies and organizations whose engineers and managers were using original and ingenious applications of six sigma in traditional design and manufacturing. Out of these experiences came many of the examples and case studies in this book.

I observed and helped train many engineers in companies using tools and methodologies of six sigma. The companies vary in size, scope, product type, and strategy, yet they are similar in their approach to successfully implementing six sigma through an interdisciplinary team environment and using the tools and methods mentioned in this book effectively by altering them to meet their particular needs.

I believe the most important impact of six sigma is its use in the design of new products, starting with making it one of the goals of the new product creation process. It makes the design engineers extremely cognizant of the importance of designing and specifying products that can be manufactured with six sigma quality at low cost. Too many times, a company introduces six sigma by having manufacturing adopt it as its goal, a very daunting task, especially if current products were not designed with six sigma in mind.

The approach I use in this book is not to be rigid about six sigma. I have attempted to present many of the options available to measure and implement six sigma, and not to specifically recommend a course of action in each instance. Engineers are very creative people, and they will always try to meld new concepts into ones familiar to them. Many will put their own stamp on its methodology or add their own way of doing things to the six sigma techniques. The one sure way to make them resist a new concept is to force it down their throats. I believe these individual engineers’ efforts should be encouraged, as long as they do not detract from the overall goal of achieving six sigma.

I hope that this book will be of value to the neophyte as well as the experienced practitioners of Six Sigma. In particular, it will benefit the small to medium size companies that do not have the support staff and the resources necessary to try out some of the six sigma ideas and techniques and meld them into the company culture. The experiences documented here should be helpful to encourage many companies to venture out and develop new world-class products through six sigma that can help them grow and prosper for the future.

TOC

Illustrations and Tables
Abbreviations
Preface

Chapter 1.
The Nature of Six Sigma and Its Connectivity to Other Quality Tools
1.1 Historical Perspective
1.2 Why Six Sigma?
1.3 Defending Six Sigma
1.4 The Definitions of Six Sigma
1.5 Increasing the Cp Level to Reach Six Sigma
1.6 Definitions of Major Quality Tools and How They Effect Six Sigma
1.7 Mandatory Quality Tools
1.8 Quality Function Deployment (QFD)
1.8.1 Engineering
1.8.2 Management
1.8.3 Marketing
1.9 Design for Manufacture (DFM)
1.10 Design of Experiments (DoE)
1.11 Other Quality Tools
1.11.1 Process mapping
1.11.2 Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA)
1.12 Gauge Repeatability and Reproducibility (GR&R)
1.13 Conclusions
1.14 References and Bibliography

Chapter 2.
The Elements of Six Sigma and Their Determination
2.1 The Quality Measurement Techniques: SQC, Six Sigma, Cp and Cpk
2.1.1 The Statistical quality control (SQC) methods
2.1.2 The relationship of control charts and six sigma
2.1.3 The process capability index (Cp)
2.1.4 Six sigma approach
2.1.5 Six sigma and the shift
2.2 The Cpk Approach Versus Six Sigma
2.2.1 Cpk and process average shift
2.2.2 Negative Cpk
2.2.3 Choosing six sigma or Cpk5
2.2.4 Setting the process capability index
2.3 Calculating Defects Using Normal Distribution
2.3.1 Relationship between z and Cpk
2.3.2 Example defect calculations and Cpk
2.3.3 Attribute processes and reject analysis for six sigma
2.4 Are Manufacturing Processes and Supply Parts Always Normally Distributed?
2.4.1 Quick visual check for normality
2.4.2 Checking for normality using chi-square tests
2.4.3 Example of 2goodness of fit to normal distribution test
2.4.4 Transformation data into normal distributions
2.4.5 The use of statistical software for 65normality analysis
2.5 Conclusions
2.6 References and Bibliography

Chapter 3.
Six Sigma and the Manufacturing Control Systems
3.1 Manufacturing Variability Measurement and Control
3.2 The Control of Variable Processes and Its Relationship with Six Sigma
3.2.1. Variable control chart limits
3.2.2 Control chart limits calculations
3.2.3 Control and specifications limits
3.2.4 X, R variable control chart calculations example
3.2.5 Alternate methods for calculating control limits
3.2.6 Control chart guidelines, out-of-control conditions, and corrective action procedures and examples
3.2.7 Examples of variable control chart calculations and their relationship to six sigma
3.3 Attribute charts and their Relationship with Six Sigma
3.3.1 The binomial distribution
3.3.2 Examples of using the binomial distribution
3.3.3 The Poisson distribution
3.3.4 Examples of using the Poisson distribution
3.3.5 Attribute control charts limit calculations
3.3.6 Examples of attribute control charts calculations and their relationship to six sigma
3.3.7 Use of control charts in factories that are approaching six sigma
3.4 Using TQM Techniques to Maintain Six Sigma Quality in Manufacturing
3.4.1 TQM tools definitions and examples
3.5 Conclusions
3.6 References and Bibliography

Chapter 4.
The Use of Six Sigma in Determining the Manufacturing Yield and Test Strategy
4.1 Determining Units of Defects
4.2 Determining Manufacturing Yield on a Single Operation or a Part with Multiple Similar Operations
4.2.1 Example of calculating yield in a part with multiple operations
4.2.2 Determining assembly yield and PCB and product test levels in electronic products
4.2.3 PCB yield example
4.3 Determining Design or Manufacturing Yield on Multiple Parts with Multiple Manufacturing Operations or Design Specifications
4.3.1 Determining first-time yield at the electronic product turn-on level
4.3.2 Example of yield calculations at the PCB assembly level
4.3.3 DPMO methods for standardizing defect measurements
4.3.4 DPMO charts
4.3.5 Critique of DMPO methods
4.3.6 The use of implied Cpk in product and 6assembly line manufacturing and planning activities
4.3.7 Example and discussion of implied Cpk in IC assembly line defect projections
4.4 Determining Overall Product Testing Strategy
4.4.1 PCB test strategy
4.4.2 PCB test strategy example
4.4.3 In-circuit test effectiveness
4.4.4 Factors affecting test operation parameters
4.4.5 Test coverage
4.4.6 Bad and good test effectiveness
4.4.7 Future trends in testing
4.5 Conclusions0
4.6 References and Bibliography

Chapter 5.
The Use of Six Sigma With High- and Low-Volume Products and Processes
5.1 Process Average and Standard Deviation Calculations for Samples and Populations
5.1.1 Examples of the use of the t-distribution for sample and population averages
5.1.2 Other statistical tools: Point and interval estimation
5.1.3 Examples of point estimation of the average
5.1.4 Confidence interval estimation for the average
5.1.5 Standard deviation for samples and populations
5.1.6 Examples of population variance determination
5.2 Determining Process Capability
5.2.1 Process capability for large-volume production
5.2.2 Determination of standard deviation for process capability
5.2.3 Example of methods of calculating
5.2.4 Process capability for low-volume production
5.2.5 Moving range (MR) methodologies for low volume: MR control charts
5.2.6 Process capability studies in industry
5.3 Determining Gauge Capability
5.3.1 GR&R methodology
5.3.2 Examples of GR&R calculations
5.3.3 GR&R results interpretation
5.3.4 GR&R examples
5.4 Determining Short- and Long-Term Process Capability
5.4.1 Process capability for prototype and early production parts
5.4.2 Corrective action for process capability problems
5.5 Conclusions
5.6 References and Bibliography

Chapter 6.
Six Sigma Quality and Manufacturing Costs of Electronics Products
6.1The Overall Electronic Product Life Cycle Cost Model
6.1.1 The use of the quality and cost model to achieve world-class cost and quality
6.1.2 Developing the background information cost estimating of electronic products
6.1.3 Determination of costs and tracking tools for electronic products
6.2 The Quality and Cost Relationship
6.2.1 The quality loss function (QLF)
6.2.2 Quality loss function example
6.2.3 A practical quality and cost approach
6.3 Electronic Products Cost Estimating Systems
6.3.1 Relating quality data to manufacturing six sigma or Cpk levels
6.3.2 Printed circuit board (PCB) fabrication technologies
6.3.3 Printed circuit board (PCB) design, fabrication cost, and quality issues
6.3.4 PCB fabrication cost and quality alternative example
6.4 PCB Assembly Cost Estimating Systems
6.4.1Material-based PCB assembly cost system
6.4.2The technology cost driver system
6.4.3PCB assembly cost modifiers
6.4.4Quality-based product cost models
6.5Conclusions
6.6References and Bibliography

Chapter 7.
Six Sigma and Design of Experiments (DoE)
7.1 DoE Definitions and Expectations
7.1.1 DoE objectives and expectations
7.2 Design of Experiments (DoE) Techniques
7.2.1 Steps in conducting a successful DoE experiment
7.2.2 Types of DoE experiments using orthogonal arrays
7.2.3 Two-level orthogonal arrays
7.2.4 Three-level orthogonal arrays
7.2.5 Interaction and linear graphs
7.2.6 Multilevel arrangements and combination designs
7.2.7 The Taguchi contribution to DoE
7.3 The DoE Analysis Tool Set
7.3.1 Orthogonal array L9 saturated design 8example: Bonding process optimization
7.3.2 Graphical analysis conclusions
7.3.3 Analysis of DoE data with interactions: Electrical hipot test L8 partial factorial Resolution IV example
7.3.4 Statistical analysis of DoEs
7.3.5 Statistical analysis of the hipot experiment
7.4 Variability Reduction Using DoE
7.5 Using DoE Methods in Six Sigma Design and Manufacturing Projects
7.6 Conclusions
7.7 References and Bibliography

Chapter 8.
Six Sigma and Its Use in the Analysis of Design and Manufacturing for Current and New Products and Processes
8.1 Current Product Six Sigma Strategy
8.1.1 Process improvement in current products
8.2 Transitioning New Product Development to Six Sigma
8.2.1 Design analysis for six sigma
8.2.2 Measuring the capability of current manufacturing processes
8.2.3 Investigating more capable processes for new products
8.2.4 Case studies of process capability investigations for manufacturing: Stencil technology for DoE
8.3 Determining Six Sigma Quality in Different Design Disciplines
8.3.1 Mechanical product design process
8.3.2 Mechanical design and tolerance analysis
8.3.3 Types of tolerance analysis
8.3.4 Statistical tolerance analysis for mechanical design
8.3.5 Tolerance analysis example
8.3.6 Statistical analysis of the mechanical design example
8.3.7 Tolerance analysis and CAD
8.3.8 Tolerance analysis and manufacturing processes
8.3.9 Mechanical design case study
8.3.10 Thermal design six sigma assessment example
8.3.11 Six sigma for electronic circuits with 0multiple specifications
8.3.12 Special considerations in Cpk for design of electronic products
8.3.13. The use of design quality analysis in systems architecture
8.4 Applying Six Sigma Quality for New Product Introduction
8.4.1 Optimizing new manufacturing processes
8.4.2 New process optimization example: Target value manipulations and variability reduction DoE
8.4.3 Trade-offs in new product design disciplines
8.4.4 New product design trade-off example—7Screening DoE followed by in-depth DoE for defect elimination in thermal printer design
8.4.5 New product test strategy
8.4.6 New product test strategy example
8.5 Conclusions

Chapter 9.
Six Sigma and the New Product Life Cycle
9.1 Background: Concurrent Engineering Successes and New Trends
9.1.1 Changes to the product realization process
9.2 Supply Chain Development
9.2.1 Outsourcing issues
9.2.2 Dependency versus competency
9.2.3 Outsourcing strategy
9.2.4 Supply chain communications and information control
9.2.5 Quality and supply chain management
9.2.6 Supply chain selection process
9.3 Product Life Cycle and the Six Sigma Design Quality Issues
9.3.1 Changes in electronic product design
9.3.2 Changing traditional design communications and supplier involvement
9.3.3 Design process communications needs
9.4 Conclusions
9.5 References and Bibliography

Chapter 10.
New Product and Systems Project Management Using Six Sigma Quality
10.1 The Quality System Review and Quality-Based Project Management Methodologies
10.1.1 The quality-based system design process
10.1.2 Six sigma quality-based system design process benefits
10.1.3 Historical perspective of project management
10.1.4 Project management of the product development process
10.2 Technical Design Information Flow and Six Sigma System Design
10.2.1 Opportunities in six sigma for system or product design improvements
10.2.2 The system design process
10.2.3 The system design steps
10.2.4 Composite Cpk
10.2.5 Selecting key characteristics for systems design analysis
10.2.6 Standardized procedures in design to determine the composite Cpk
10.2.7 Standardized procedures in manufacturing to determine the composite Cpk
10.3 Conclusions

Chapter 11.
Implementing Six Sigma in Electronics Design and Manufacturing
11.1 Six Sigma Design Project Management Models
11.1.1 Axioms for creating six sigma within the organization
11.2 Cultural Issues with the Six Sigma Based System Design Process
11.3 Key Processes to Enhance the Concurrent Product Creation Process
11.3.1 Six sigma phased review process
11.3.2 Six sigma quality advocacy and the quality systems review
11.3.3 Six sigma manufacturability assessment and tactical plans in production
11.4 Tools to Support Suggested Processes
Index

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