Related Resources: Dimensioning and Tolerancing

### Geometrical Boundaries Interpretation and Application of G&T per. ISO 1101

White Papers, Engineering Documents and Specifications

Mechanical Tolerancing, Dimensioning Design Resources

This resource requires a Premium Membership

Open: Geometrical Boundaries, Interpretation and Application of G&T per. ISO 1101

Written and Illustrated by Kelly L. Bramble

1.2 Preface
1.3 Acknowledgments
1.9 Introduction
1.10 Engineering Drawing Standards First and Third Angle Projection
1.11 Standards Based on ISO or ASME
1.16 Corporate Standards
1.17 Abbreviations
1.18 ISO Geometrical Symbols Text Equivalents
1.19 How the Geometrical Dimensioning and Tolerancing System Works
1.20 Geometrical Tolerances Characteristics Overview
1.21 Tolerance Hierarchy
1.22 Tolerance Frame
1.23 Tolerance Frame Association and Application
1.24 Common Symbols ISO 1101:2004
1.26 Position and Limit Tolerance General Overview and Contrast
1.27 Recommended Fundamental Rules

2.1 Limit Tolerancing
2.2 Dimensioning System –Limit Tolerancing
2.3 Implied 90 Degree Angle
2.3 Dimensional Expression
2.4 Dimension Origin
2.5 Gears, Splines and Screw Threads
2.6 Feature Definition – Size & Without Size
2.7 Materials Requirements, MMR, LMR
2.8 Principal of Independency
2.9 Envelope Requirement

3.1 Datum coordinate system (DCS) overview
3.2 Immobilization of Component and Measurement
3.4 Datum symbols and identification Datum identification features without size
3.5 Datum identification features with size
3.6 Datum Identification Features with Size Alternative and Special Applications
3.7 Datum associated with Tolerance Frame
3.8 Simulated datum, and Theoretical Datum Plane
3.9 Primary External Datum Diameter
3.10 Primary Internal Datum Diameter
3.11 Primary External Datum Width
3.12 Primary Internal Datum Width
3.13 Primary Datum Features Reference Chart
3.14 Setup and Inspection of Datum’s
3.16 Sequence of datum features
3.17 Sequence of datum features relates part to datum coordinate system
3.18 Parts with angular orientation
3.20 Cylindrical datum feature
3.21 Orientation of Two Datum Planes Through a Hole
3.23 Partial Datum Surfaces as Datum Features
3.24 Multiple Datum features, Single Datum
3.25 Planar Multiple Datum Features Offset
3.26 Contoured Datum Feature Constraining a Rotational Degree of Freedom
3.27 Planar Datum Feature Constraining a Rotational Degree of Freedom
3.28 Inclined Datum Features

4.1 Datum Targets Overview
4.2 Datum Target Point Symbol, Application
4.3 Datum Target Area
4.4 Datum Target Line
4.5 Dimensioning Datum Targets
4.6 Primary Datum Plane Established by Three Datum Target Areas
4.7 Primary Datum Plane Established by Two Datum Target Points and One Datum Target Line.
4.8 Datum Step Feature
4.9 Datum Target Lines and Areas
4.10 Primary Datum Axis Established by Datum Target points on a Single Cylindrical Feature
4.11 Equalizing Datum
4.13 Secondary Datum Axis

5.1 Form Tolerances General
5.2 Flatness
5.3 Flatness Applied to Multiple Unique Surfaces With the Same Value
5.4 Flatness Applied to Multiple Unique Surfaces as a Common Tolerance Zone
5.5 Flatness Applied on a Unit Basis
5.6 Flatness Applied on Unit Basis with Overall Control
5.7 Straightness
5.8 Straightness Per Unit Basis
5.9 Straightness Tolerance Applied in Two Directions
5.10 Straightness of a Surface (Cylindrical)
5.11 Straightness of a Feature of Size at RFS
5.12 Straightness of a Feature of Size at MMR
5.13 Straightness Per Unit Length With Specified Total Straightness
5.14 Cylindricity
5.15 Roundness
5.16 Roundness of Cone
5.17 Roundness of Sphere
5.18 Roundness or Cylindricity Applied with Average Diameter

6.1 Orientation Tolerances General
6.2 Perpendicularity – Surface
6.3 Perpendicularity Surface Multiple Datum’s
6.4 Perpendicularity – Center plane
6.5 Perpendicularity at MMR Internal Feature – Center Plane
6.6 Perpendicularity – External feature of Size Axis
6.7 Perpendicularity – Internal feature of size axis
6.8 Perpendicularity –Threaded Hole or Inserts Projected Tolerance Zone
6.9 Parallelism
6.10 Parallelism Control of Two Hole Features
6.11 Parallelism Hole Relative to Plane
6.12 Angularity Overview and Surface to Surface
6.13 Angularity Surface to Surface with Location Control
6.14 Angularity Hole to Planar Datum

7.1 Tolerances of Location - General
7.2 Fundamental Explanation of Positional Tolerancing Feature of Size
7.4 Definitions and Modifiers
7.5 Maximum Material Requirement MMR
7.6 Least Material Requirement LMR
7.7 External Feature of Size Position Tolerance Boundaries with MMR Specification
7.8 Internal Feature of Size Position Tolerance Boundaries with MMR Specification
7.9 External Feature of Size Position Tolerance Boundaries with LMR Specification
7.10 Internal Feature of Size Position Tolerance Boundaries with LMR Specification
7.11 Zero positional tolerance at MMR
7.12 Position Tolerance at RFS
7.13 Positional Tolerance Axis and Surface Interpretation – Surface Datum’s
7.14 Positional Tolerance Axis Interpretation – Surface Datum’s
7.15 Positional Tolerance Surface Interpretation - Surface Datum’s
7.16 Positional Tolerance Axis and Surface Interpretation - Thru Hole Datum’s
7.17 Positional Tolerance Axis Interpretation – Thru Hole Datum’s
7.18 Positional Tolerance Surface Interpretation - Thru Hole Datum’s
7.19 Positional Tolerance at MMR Relative to Hole and Slot Datum Features
7.20 Position Tolerance Applied to a Flat Surface
7.21 Bi-Directional Positional Tolerancing, Polar Coordinate Method
7.22 Different Positional Tolerance at Each Surface
7.23 Coaxial (Concentric) Control of Cylinders
7.24 Coaxial (Concentric) Control of Multiple Hole-Counterbore Holes
7.25 Hole Pattern Located Perpendicular to Cylindrical Datum
7.26 Hole Pattern Located Perpendicular to Cylindrical Datum
7.27 Holes Not Normal to DCS
7.28 Hole Pattern Located at Angle to Datum Coordinate System
7.29 Positional Tolerance at MMR of Spherical Feature
7.30 Positional Tolerance of Coaxial Holes of Same Size
7.31 Least Material Requirement Application – Cylinder Minimum Wall Thickness
7.32 Positional Tolerance for Coaxiality With Datum Feature Referenced at MMR
7.33 Positional Tolerance for Coaxially with Feature Referenced at Zero MMR Relative to Datum Feature at MMR
7.34 Positional Tolerance - Thru Hole Datum’s at MMR
7.35 Positional Tolerance - Thru Hole Datum Verification
7.36 Composite Positional Tolerancing
7.39 Composite Positional Tolerancing With Pattern Orientation Control
7.42 Coaxiality Tolerancing of an Axis
7.43 Concentricity Tolerance of Spherical Feature
7.44 Symmetry

8.1 Profile General
8.2 Profile Surface Definition
8.3 Profile any Surface, Bilateral Tolerance
8.4 Profile any Surface, Bilateral Tolerance Rectangular Coordinate Dimensioning Without Dimension Lines
8.5 Profile any Surface, Unilateral (Inside) Tolerance
8.6 Profile any Surface, Unilateral (Inside) Tolerance
8.7 Profile any Surface, Unilateral (Outside) Tolerance
8.8 Profile any Surface, Unilateral (Outside) Tolerance
8.9 Profile any Surface, bilateral unequal tolerance
8.10 Profile any Surface, All Around
8.11 Profile any Surface, Independent Form Control
8.12 Profile any Surface Tolerance Independent Form Control Not Related to Datum
8.13 Profile Tolerance for Coplanar Surfaces
8.14 Profile any Line
8.15 Profile any Line Tapered Shape
8.16 Profile any Line Without Datum Reference
8.17 Composite Profile Tolerance

9.1 Run-out General
9.2 Circular Run-out
9.3 Circular Run-out, Tapered Surface
9.4 Circular Run-out, Perpendicular Surface Surface
9.5 Total Run-out
9.6 Total Run-out, Tapered Surface
9.7 Total Run-out, Perpendicular
Surface
9.8 Run-Out With Plane as Datum
9.9 Run-Out Relative to Datum Surface and a Diameter
9.10 Run-Out With Two Datum Diameters
9.11 Multiple Cylinders Related to Each Other Run-out Application
9.12 Run-out Relating Separate Features to Each Other with Common Datum

10.1 Coaxial Tolerance Comparison

11.1 Tolerance Conversion Unilateral - Bilateral
11.2 Series Stack Calculations
11.3 Floating Fastener Condition
11.4 Fixed Fastener Condition
11.5 Tolerance Compensation for Projected Tolerance Zone – Fixed Fastener condition
11.7 Two Mating Diameters Positional Calculation
11.8 Three Mating Diameters Positional Calculation
11.9 Position Tolerance Verification and Hole Pattern Analysis
11.11 Position Coordinate to Location Conversion Chart
11.12 Generic Hole Verification Chart

12.1 Critical Feature Drawing (Reduced Dimension Drawing)
12.2 Implementation Considerations Applicable Documents, Overview
12.3 Design Drawing Requirements Digital Model and Database
12.4 Quality and Inspection Requirements Manufacturing
12.5 Change Notice Procedure Chapter 13
13.1 Comparison of ISO and ASME Symbols

14.1 Glossary and Definitions Appendix A

15.1 ANSI Standard Size (Inch) Drills
15.3 ISO Metric (mm) Size Standard Drill Sizes
15.4 ANSI External Screw Threads Sizes 0 - 3/8
15.5 ANSI External Screw Threads Sizes 3/8 – Larger
15.6 ACME Thread Forms – General Purpose External
15.7 ACME Thread Forms – General Purpose Internal

Acknowledgments

The following documents have been used as reference material (cited and not cited).
ISO 129 - Technical Drawings General Principles
ISO 406 - Technical Drawing Linear and Angular Dimensions
ISO 1101 - Technical Drawings Geometrical Tolerancing
ISO 1660 - Technical Drawings Profiles
ISO 2692 - Technical Drawings Maximum Material Requirement
ISO 2692:1998/DAM 1 - Technical Drawings Least Material Requirement
ISO 3040 - Technical Drawings Cones
ISO 5458 - Technical Drawings Positional Tolerancing
ISO 5959 - Technical Drawings Datum's and Datum Systems
ISO 7083 - Technical Drawings Symbols Proportions
ISO 8015:1985 - Technical Drawings Fundamental Tolerance Principle
ISO 10578:1992 – Technical Drawings - Tolerancing of orientation and location –
Projected tolerance zone
ISO 10579:1993 - Technical Drawings Non-Rigid Parts
ISO 10587 - Technical Drawings Projected Tolerance Zones
ISO/TS12180-1:2003, Cylindricity – Part 2
ASME Y14.5-2009 – Dimensioning and Tolerancing
ASME Y14.5.M-1994 - Dimensioning and Tolerancing.
Engineers Edge 2000 - 2011, Solutions by Design, Kelly Bramble
Engineering Design for Manufacturing 2006 - 2011, Kelly Bramble

This resource requires a Premium Membership

Open: Geometrical Boundaries, Interpretation and Application of G&T per. ISO 1101