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Microwave and RF Design Radio Systems

Instrumentation, Electronics & Control Sensing Devices

Microwave and RF Design Radio Systems
Volume I
Third Edition
Michael Steer
North Carolina State University
245 Pages

Open: Microwave and RF Design, Fundamentals
Basic Membership Minimum Required

Preface:

The book series Microwave and RF Design is a comprehensive treatment of radio frequency (RF) and microwave design with a modern “systems- first” approach. A strong emphasis on design permeates the series with extensive case studies and design examples. Design is oriented towards cellular communications and microstrip design so that lessons learned can be applied to real-world design tasks. RF systems it describes system concepts and provides comprehensive knowledge of RF and microwave systems. The emphasis is on understanding how systems are crafted from many different technologies and concepts. The reader gains valuable insight into howdifferent technologies can be traded off inmeeting system requirements. I do not believe this systems presentation is available anywhere else in such a compact form.

Case Studies
A key feature of this book series is the use of real world case studies of leading edge designs. Some of the case studies are designs done in my research group to demonstrate design techniques resulting in leading performance. The case studies and the persons responsible for helping to
develop them are as follows.

1. Software defined radio transmitter.
2. High dynamic range down converter design. This case study was developed with Alan Victor.
3. Design of a third-order Chebyshev combline filter. This case study was developed with Wael Fathelbab.
4. Design of a bandstop filter. This case study was developed with Wael Fathelbab.
5. Tunable Resonator with a varactor diode stack. This case study was developed with Alan Victor.
6. Analysis of a 15 GHz Receiver. This case study was developed with Alan Victor.
7. Transceiver Architecture. This case study was developed with Alan Victor.
8. Narrowband linear amplifier design. This case study was developed with Dane Collins and National Instruments Corporation.
9. Wideband Amplifier Design. This case studywas developedwith Dane Collins and National Instruments Corporation.
10. Distributed biasing of differential amplifiers. This case study was developed with Wael Fathelbab.
11. Analysis of a distributed amplifier. This case studywas developed with Ratan Bhatia, Jason Gerber, Tony Kwan, and Rowan Gilmore.
12. Design of a WiMAX power amplifier. This case study was developed with Dane Collins and National Instruments Corporation.
13. Reflection oscillator. This case study was developed with Dane Collins and National Instruments Corporation.
14. Design of a C-Band VCO. This case study was developed with Alan Victor.
15. Oscillator phase noise analysis. This case study was developed with Dane Collins and National Instruments Corporation.

TOC

Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v
1 Introduction to RF andMicrowave Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 RFandMicrowaveEngineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.3 CommunicationOverDistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.3.1 ElectromagneticFields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.3.2 Biot-SavartLaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.3.3 Faraday’sLawof Induction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.3.4 Ampere’sCircuitalLaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.3.5 Gauss’sLaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.3.6 Gauss’sLawofMagnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.3.7 Telegraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
1.3.8 TheOrigins ofRadio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.3.9 Maxwell’sEquations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.3.10 TransmissionofRadioSignals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
1.3.11 EarlyRadio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
1.4 RadioArchitecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.5 Conventional Wireless Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.6 RFPowerCalculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.6.1 RFPropagation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
1.6.2 Logarithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.6.3 Decibels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.6.4 DecibelsandVoltageGain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
1.7 Photons andElectromagneticWaves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1.8 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.9 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.10 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
1.10.1 ExercisesBySection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
1.10.2 Answers to Selected Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
2 Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
2.2 RadioSignalMetrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
2.2.1 Crest Factor and Peak-to-Average Power Ratio . . . . 29
2.2.2 Peak-to-Mean Envelope Power Ratio . . . . . . . . . . 31
2.2.3 Two-Tone Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
2.3 ModulationOverview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
2.4 AnalogModulation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.4.1 AmplitudeModulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.4.2 PhaseModulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
2.4.3 FrequencyModulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
2.4.4 AnalogModulationSummary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
2.5 DigitalModulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
2.5.1 ModulationEfficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
2.6 FrequencyShiftKeying,FSK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
2.6.1 EssentialsofFSKModulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
2.6.2 GaussianMinimumShiftKeying . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
2.6.3 DopplerEffect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
2.6.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
2.7 CarrierRecovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
2.8 Phase ShiftKeyingModulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
2.8.1 EssentialsofPSK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
2.8.2 BinaryPhase ShiftKeying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
2.8.3 Quadra-PhaseShiftKeying,QPSK . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
2.8.4 π/4QuadraturePhase ShiftKeying . . . . . . . . . . . 57
2.8.5 Differential Quadra Phase Shift Keying, DQPSK . . . . 59
2.8.6 Offset Quadra Phase Shift Keying, OQPSK . . . . . . . 61
2.8.7 3π/8-8PSK, Rotating Eight-State Phase Shift Keying . 63
2.8.8 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
2.9 QuadratureAmplitudeModulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
2.10 DigitalModulationSummary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
2.11 InterferenceandDistortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
2.11.1 Cochannel Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
2.11.2 AdjacentChannel Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
2.11.3 Noise, Distortion, and Constellation Diagrams . . . . . 68
2.11.4 Comparison of GMSK and π/4DQPSK Modulation . . 68
2.11.5 ErrorVectorMagnitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
2.12 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
2.13 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
2.14 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
2.14.1 ExercisesBySection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
2.14.2 Answers to Selected Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
3 Transmitters and Receivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
3.2 Single-Sideband and Double-Sideband Modulation . . . . . . 78
3.3 Early Modulation and Demodulation Technology . . . . . . . 80
3.3.1 HeterodyneReceiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
3.3.2 HomodyneReceiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
3.3.3 FMModulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
3.3.4 FMDemodulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
3.3.5 SuperheterodyneReceiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
3.3.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
3.4 ReceiverandTransmitterArchitectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
3.4.1 RadioasaCascadeofTwo-Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
3.4.2 Heterodyne Transmitter and Receiver . . . . . . . . . . 83
3.4.3 Superheterodyne Receiver Architecture . . . . . . . . . 84
3.4.4 SingleHeterodyneReceiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
3.4.5 Transceiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
3.4.6 HartleyModulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
3.4.7 The Hartley Modulator in Modern Radios . . . . . . . 87
3.5 CarrierRecovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
3.6 ModernTransmitterArchitectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
3.6.1 QuadratureModulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
3.6.2 QuadratureModulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
3.6.3 FrequencyModulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
3.6.4 PolarModulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
3.7 ModernReceiverArchitectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
3.7.1 ReceiverArchitectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
3.7.2 HomodyneFrequencyConversion . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
3.7.3 Heterodyne Frequency Conversion . . . . . . . . . . . 94
3.7.4 DirectConversionReceiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
3.7.5 Low-IFReceiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
3.7.6 Subsampling Analog-to-Digital Conversion . . . . . . 95
3.7.7 First IF-to-BasebandConversion . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
3.7.8 Bilateral Double-Conversion Receiver . . . . . . . . . . 96
3.8 IntroductiontoSoftwareDefinedRadio . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
3.9 SDRQuadratureModulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
3.9.1 AnalogQuadratureModulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
3.9.2 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
3.10 CaseStudy:SDRTransmitter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
3.10.1 Analog QuadratureModulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
3.10.2 Single-Sideband Suppressed-Carrier (SSB-SC) Modulation.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
3.10.3 Digital Quadrature Modulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
3.10.4 QAMDigitalModulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
3.10.5 SDR Transmitter Using QAM Digital Modulation . . . 113
3.11 SDRQuadratureDemodulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
3.12 SDRReceiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
3.12.1 Demodulation of the I component . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
3.12.2 Demodulation of the Q component . . . . . . . . . . . 124
3.13 SDRSummary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
3.14 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
3.15 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
3.16 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
4 Antennas and the RF Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
4.2 RFAntennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
4.3 ResonantAntennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
4.3.1 RadiationfromaCurrentFilament . . . . . . . . . . . 131
4.3.2 Finite-LengthWireAntennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
4.4 Traveling-WaveAntennas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
4.5 AntennaParameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
4.5.1 Radiation Density and Radiation Intensity . . . . . . . 137
4.5.2 DirectivityandAntennaGain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
4.5.3 EffectiveIsotropicRadiatedPower . . . . . . . . . . . 141
4.5.4 EffectiveApertureSize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
4.5.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
4.6 TheRFLink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
4.6.1 PropagationPath . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
4.6.2 ResonantScattering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
4.6.3 Fading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
4.6.4 LinkLoss andPathLoss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
4.6.5 FresnelZones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
4.6.6 Propagation Model in the Mobile Environment . . . . 155
4.7 MultipathandDelaySpread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
4.7.1 DelaySpread . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
4.7.2 Intersymbol Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
4.7.3 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
4.8 RadioLinkInterference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
4.8.1 FrequencyReusePlan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
4.8.2 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
4.9 Antenna array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
4.10 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
4.11 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
4.12 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
4.12.1 ExercisesBySection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
4.12.2 Answers to Selected Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
5 RF Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
5.2 Broadcast, Simplex, Duplex, Diplex, and Multiplex Operations 174
5.2.1 International Telecommunications Union Definitions . 175
5.2.2 DuplexVersusDiplex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177
5.3 CellularCommunications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
5.3.1 CellularConcept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178
5.3.2 PersonalCommunicationServices . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
5.3.3 CallFlowandHandoff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
5.3.4 Cochannel Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
5.4 MultipleAccessSchemes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
5.5 SpectrumEfficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
5.6 ProcessingGain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
5.6.1 EnergyofaBit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
5.6.2 CodingGain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
5.6.3 SpreadingGain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
5.6.4 Spreading Gain in Terms of Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . 191
5.6.5 Symbol Error Rate and Bit Error Rate . . . . . . . . . . 192
5.6.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
5.7 Early Generations of Cellular Phone Systems . . . . . . . . . . 196
5.8 EarlyGenerationsofRadio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
5.8.1 1G, First Generation: Analog Radio . . . . . . . . . . . 197
5.8.2 2G, Second Generation: Digital Radio . . . . . . . . . . 199
5.9 3G, Third Generation: Code Division Multiple Acces (CDMA) 201
5.9.1 Generation 2.5: Direct Sequence Code Division MultipleAccess
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
5.9.2 MultipathandRakeReceivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
5.9.3 3G,WidebandCDMA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
5.9.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
5.10 4G,FourthGenerationRadio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
5.10.1 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing . . . . . 209
5.10.2 Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access . . . 212
5.10.3 CyclicPrefix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212
5.10.4 FDDversusTDD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
5.10.5 Multiple Input, Multiple Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213
5.10.6 CarrierAggregation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
5.10.7 IEEE802.11n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
5.10.8 OFDMModulator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
5.10.9 Summaryof 4G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
5.11 5G,FifthGenerationRadio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
5.11.1 MeshRadio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
5.11.2 CognitiveRadio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
5.11.3 MassiveMIMO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
5.11.4 ActiveAntennaSystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
5.11.5 MicrowaveFrequencyOperation . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
5.11.6 Millimeter-WaveOperation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
5.11.7 NonOrthogonalMultipleAccess . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
5.11.8 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
5.12 6G,SixthGenerationRadio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
5.13 RadarSystems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
5.14 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
5.15 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
5.16 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231
5.16.1 ExercisesBySection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
5.16.2 Answers to Selected Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
5.A MathematicsofRandomProcesses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239

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