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Maintenance Engineering Techniques

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Maintenance Engineering Techniques

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Maintenance Engineering Techniques

Introduction excerpt

The fundamental purpose of this handbook, Maintenance Engineering Techniques, is to provide authoritative information requisite to the planning and implementation of effective maintenance engineering programs. A comprehensive discussion of maintenance engineering functions that must be accomplished in order to insure cost-effective acquisition, operation, and support of Army materiel is presented. The general method of presentation is to define a function and its importance, and then to provide basic information on when the function should be accomplished and the techniques that should be used.

Although written primarily for maintenance engineers, the handbook is structured with a wider audience in mind. The level of detail and manner of presentation make the handbook useful for the orientation and guidance of new personnel, Army contractors, and personnel in engineering disciplines such as system design, reliability, maintainability, safety, and human engineering. Additionally, management personnel may improve their understanding of the scope and importance of maintenance engineering by reading the handbook. Use of the handbook by this wider audience is encouraged. A greater understanding of maintenance engineering by the management and engineering disciplines with which it interfaces will result in more cost-effective Army materiel.

The handbook was prepared by the Orlando Division of Martin Marietta Aerospace under subcontract to the Engineering Handbook Office of the Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, prime contractor of the U S Army Materiel Command. Technical guidance and coordination were provided by an Ad Hoc Working Group representing the AMC Commodity Commands and agencies.



What Is Maintenance Engineering?
Interface Between Maintenance Engineering
and Maintenance
Maintenance Engineering Objectives
Interface Among Maintenance Engineering
Elements and Related Disciplines

Conceptual Phase
Procedural Model
Operational and Maintenance Parameters
Operational Parameters
Maintenance Parameters
Planning Techniques
Development Plan
Plan for Logistic Support
Schedule and Basis for Logistic Support Planning .
Elements of Logistic Support
Validation Phase
Request for Proposal Inputs
Contractor Effort
Evaluation of Contractor Reports
Support Plans
Contractor Recommended Plans
Management Support Plan
Support Equipment Plan
Repair Parts and Support Plan
Personnel and Training Plan
Equipment Publication Plan
Facility Plan
Contract Maintenance Plan
Technical Assistance Plan 2-18
Maintenance Documentation and Analysis Plan .2-19
Maintenance Evaluation Plan 2-20
Transportation. Packaging, and Storage Plan 2-20
Full-scale Development 2-20
Support Plans-Work Statements 2-22
Management Support Plan 2-22
Support Equipment Plan 2-22
Repair Part and Support Plan 2-23
Personnel and Training Plan 2-23
Equipment Publication Plan 2-24
Facility Plan 2-24
Contract Maintenance Plan 2-24
Technical Assistance Plan 2-24
Maintenance Documentation and Analysis Plan 2-24
Maintenance Evaluation Plan 2-25
Transportation. Packaging, and Storage Plan 2-26
Trade-offs Affecting Maintenance 2-26
Production 2-27
Deployment 2-27
Data Analysis 2-28
Materiel Modifications 2-29
Depot Operations 2-30
Disposal 2-31
References 2-33
Bibliography 2-33

Maintenance Engineering Design Philosophies
Maintenance Engineering Influence on Reliability Concepts During Design
Statistical Approach to Reliability
Probability Defined
Probability Theorems
Exponential Distribution
The "Bathtub" Curve
System Reliability Model
What Maintenance Engineering Can Do
Maintenance Engineering Influence on Life Cycle Logistics .
Cost Trade-offs
Tooling Requirements
Environmental Compatibility
Natural Environments
Induced Environments
Maintenance Engineering Actions
Life Cycle Maintenance
Personnel Training Requirements
Safety Considerations of the Electrical System
Electrical Shock ,
Prevention of Electrical Shock
Radiation Hazards
Implosion and Explosion
Mechanical Hazards 3-25.
Overload Protection 3-25
Insulation Materials 3-26
Fire 3-26
Construction Techniques 3-27
Material Selection 3-27
Physical Protection for Components 3-28
Conformal Coating 3-28
Potting 3-29
Vibration Control 3-30
Test Points 3-30
Electronic Materiel Test Points 3-31
Mechanical Materiel Test Points 3-33
Indirect Testing 3-35
Bearings ' 3-35
Non lubricated Bearings 3-35
Semi lubricated Bearings 3-36
Sealed Bearings 3-36
Sleeve Bearings 3-36
Straight Roller Bearings and Ball Bearings 3-36
Tapered Roller Bearings 3-36
Bearing Seals 3-36
Derating 3-37
Lubrication 3-37
Fixed Joints 3-37
Self-adjusting Components ." 3-38
Corrosion Aspects 3-38
Material Selection 3-38
Protective Finishes 3-38
Finish Selection Considerations 3-39
Types of Finishes 3-40
Durability Considerations 3-42
Improving Durability 343
Selection of Materials 343
Tolerances and Fits 3-44.
Quality Control 3-44
Testing Durability 3-44
Designing for Durability 3-45
Redundancy Arrangements 3-46
Simple Redundancy 3-47
Compound Redundancy 3-48
Active and Standby Redundancy 3-49
Redundancy, Reliability, and Trade-offs 3-50
Examples of Redundancy in Materiel 3-51
Maintenance Engineering Influence on Maintainability
Aspects During Design 3-52
Trade-off Parameters 3-53
Maintainability Design Reviews 3-54
Design Oriented to Organizational Maintenance Levels 3-55
System Compatibility 3-55
Repair Parts Standardization 3-56
Reduce Level of Technical Skills Required 3-57
Modules 3-58
Advantages 3-58
Design Considerations 3-58
Disposable Module Considerations 3-59
Advantages and Disadvantages 3-59
Design Requirements 3-59
Standardize Fastener Types 3-60
Types of Fasteners !
Life Cycle Repair Part Requirement Trade-off
Accessibility of Parts and Assemblies
Accessibility of Lubrication and
Service Points
Protection of Solid-state Components
Maintenance-free Equipment
Electrical Cables and Wires
Cable Design
Cable Routing
Design To Service With Standard Test Equipment
Maintenance Engineering Responsibilities in Developing
Requirements of Human Factors in Design
Human Factors Engineering
Human Body Measurements (Anthropometrical)
Sources and Use of Information on Body
Types of Body Measurements
Human Sensory Capacities
Vibration and Motion
Human Reaction to Extreme Temperatures
Cold and Wind chill
Historical Performance Data and Military Handbook Reference
Material as Aids to Maintenance Engineering Evaluation
of Design
Computerized Data Collection Systems
Maintenance Engineering Analysis System
Maintenance Management System
Military Handbooks on Engineering Design, Reliability
Engineering, Maintainability Engineering, and
Human Factors Engineering

Introduction 41
Maintenance Levels 41
Support Synthesis 4 2
Maintenance Profile 43
Maintenance Parameters 4 5
Quantitative Maintenance Parameters 4 6
Materiel Life Cycle Time Elements 4 6
Mean Time Between Failures MTBF. 4 7
Individual Corrective Maintenance Task Time Mc^ 4 8
Mean Time To Repair Mri 48
Median Time To Repair Mct 4 8
Maximum Time To Repair M4 9
Mean Preventive Maintenance Time 4 9
Median Preventive Maintenance Time 4 9
Maximum Preventive Maintenance Time 4 9
Maintenance Downtime Rate MDT . 410
Maintenance Man-hour per Operating Hour Requirements
(Maintainability Index) 410
Availability 411
Maintenance Parameters in Specifications 412
Extracts From a Current Specification 412
Typical Quantitative Specification Requirements 413
Maintenance Model 414
Maintenance Procedural Model 414
Step 1.0-Identify Items 414
Step 2.0—Develop Maintenance Concept 415
Step 3.0-Develop Support Data 415
Step 4.0—Perform Maintenance Task Analysis 418
Step 5.0-Review/Consolidate Requirements 418
Step 6.0-Identify/Resolve Problems 4-18
Step 7.0-Initiate/Update Maintenance Data System 4-18
Step 8.0-Implement Data System Results 419
Step 9.0-ReportField Experience 419
Maintenance Procedural Model Application 419
Background Information 419
Step 1.0-Identify Items 420
Step 2.0—Develop Maintenance Concept 420
Step 3.0-Develop Support Data 422
Step 4.0-Perform Task Analysis 422
Step 5.0-Review/Consolidate Requirements 422
Step 6.0-Identify/Resolve Problems 422
Step7.0-Initiate/Update Maintenance Data System 422
Application to Other Materiel 426
Maintenance Schedules 4-26
Maintenance Plan 4-26
Integration of Operations and Maintenance 427
Maintenance Organizations 4-30
Army in the Field Materiel Maintenance 430
Organizational Maintenance 43 0
Support Maintenance 431
Direct Support Maintenance 431
General Support Maintenance 431
Field and Intermediate Support Maintenance 431
Depot Maintenance 432
Support Planning 432
Repair Level Analysis 43 3
Maintenance Allocation Charts 434
Preventive and Corrective Maintenance 434
References 43 6

Introduction 5-1
Maintenance Engineering Analysis Process 5-1
Maintenance Engineering Analysis Tasks 5-2
Maintenance Data Sources 5-9
Preliminary Maintenance Allocation Chart (PMAC) 5-9
Preparation of PMAC's 5-10
PMAC Development Procedure 5-11
PMAC Description 5-11.
Maintenance Level Assignment 5-17
Formal Review 517
PMHC Revision 5-18
Logistic Support Analysis Data System 5-19
Logistic Support Analysis Input Data Sheets 5-24
Synopsis of Data Sheets 525
Operation and Maintenance Requirements
(Data Sheet A) 5-25
Reliability and Maintainability
Characteristics (Data Sheet B) 5-26
Task Analysis Summary (Data Sheet C) 5-27
Maintenance Task Analysis (Data Sheet D) 528
Support and Test Equipment or Training Material
Description and Justification (Data Sheet E) 5-29
Facility Description and Justification
(Data Sheet F) 5-29
Skill Evaluation and Justification (Data Sheet G) 5-30
Supply Support Requirements (Data Sheet H) 5-31
Data Output Reports 5 3 1
Maintenance Engineering Influence on Support 5-33
Maintenance Factors 536
Maintenance Factor Application 5-36
Checklist 536
Math Modeling 536
Automated Modeling 5-37
Advantages and Disadvantages of Estimating Methods 5-37
Relationship of Maintenance Factor to Other System
Parameters 5-37
Relationship to Failure Rate 5-37
Relationship to Availability 5-38
Relationship to Reliability and Maintainability 5-38
Elements Contributing to Maintenance Factor
Variation 5 3 8
Failure Rate 5-39
Usage Atmosphere 5-40
Susceptibility of Part to Damage 5-40
Climatic/Geographic Conditions 5-41
Utilization Rate 541
War vs Peace 542
Determination of Maintenance Factors by the Checklist Method 542
Checklist Description 5-42
Estimation Guidelines 542
Cautionary Note 5-43
Maintenance Factors Determined by
Mathematical. Analysis 5-43
Typical Mathematical Formulas 5-43
Use of Formulas 5-44
Appendix A Maintenance Factor Checklist 5-46
References 5 56
Bibliography 5-56

Introduction 6-1
Support Testing 6-1
Category I Jests/Demonstrations 6-2
Category II —Tests/Demonstrations 6-2
Category III - Tests/Demonstrations 6-2
Category IV - Tests/Demonstration 6-3
Data Analysis and Corrective Action 6-3
Design of Support Test Program 6-3
Interrelationships 6-4
Testing 6-4
Types of Tests 6-4
Development Test and Evaluation (DT&E) 6-5
Operational Test and Evaluation (OT&E) 6-7
Test Programs 6-7
Early Identification of Test Method 6-8
Test Plan Criteria 6-8
Test Support Planning 6-8
Funding 6-9
Planning 6-9
Test Data in the Maintenance Engineering
Analysis Process 6-9
Test. Measurement, and Diagnostic Equipment 6-10
Sampling. Accuracy, and Confidence Level 6-11
Maintainability Demonstration 6-13
General Requirements - 6-15
Demonstration Test Plan 6-15
Background Information 6-16
Item Interfaces 6-16
Test Team 6-17
Support Material 6-17
Preparation Stage 6-17
Demonstration 6-17
Retest 6-17
Task Selection 6-17
Type of Materiel 6-18
Random Versus Stratified Samples . 6-18
Task Occurrence Frequency 6-19
Number of Tasks 6-19
Conduct of Demonstration 6-20
Bug Insertion 6-20
Maintenance Task Accomplishment 6-20
Data Collection 6-21
Data Reduction and Analysis 6-21
Reporting 6-21'
Related Activities 6-24
Analysis Techniques 6-24
Design of Experiments 6-25
Analysis of Variance and Significance Testing 6-26
Tests for Significance 6-26
Analysis of Variance 6-29
Regression Analysis and Curve Fitting 6-34
Correlation Analysis 6-39
Maintenance Evaluation 6-41
Evaluation Sequence and Other Considerations 6-41
Physical Teardown and Evaluation Review 642
Physical Teardown and Evaluation Plan 6-43
General Information 6-43
Evaluation Team 643
Evaluation Instructions 644
Resource Acquisition 6-44
Evaluation Items List 6-45
Evaluation Task List 6-45
Required Actions 6-45
Conduct of Evaluation 6-46
Changes 6-46
Reports and Records 6-46
Events Following the Maintenance Evaluation 6-46
Physical Teardown and Evaluation Review Report 646
Data Analysis and Utilization 6-47
References 6-62
Bibliography 6-62

Maintenance Functions
Record Keeping
Types of Records
Use and Disposition of Maintenance Records
Preventive Maintenance
Definition and Description
Planning of the Preventive Maintenance 'Program ....
Corrective Maintenance
Corrective Maintenance Flow
Types of Corrective Maintenance
Corrective Maintenance Performance
Equipment Modifications
Classification of Modifications
Evaluation of Modifications
Development of Modifications
Quantitative Requirements
Other Alterations
Contract Maintenance
Contract Maintenance Phases
Advantages and Disadvantages
Specifications, Requirements, and Data
Contract Maintenance Usage
Implementation and Assessment
Maintenance Engineering Influence
Equipment Improvement
Improvement Programs
Configuration Control
Development Equipment Program
Formal Equipment Program
Implementing the Improvement Program
Design Baseline
Change Identification
Equipment Performance Report
Equipment Improvement Recommendation
Interface Considerations of Proposed Changes
Recommended Changes to DA Publications Form .
Change Procedure
Improvement Implementation
Modification Work Order
Equipment Improvement Report and
Maintenance Digest
PS Magazine

Military Data Systems
The Army Maintenance Management System (TAMMS)
Including Sample Data Collection
Applications and Exceptions
Records and Forms
Sample Data Collection
Logistic Support Analysis Data System
Depot Maintenance Capability/Capacity and Engineering
Data Report (CCEDR)
Commodity Command Standard System (CCSS)
System-wide Project for Electronic Equipment at
Depots. Extended (SPEEDEX)
Data Collection and Flow Process
Trade-offs -
Uses of Statistical Procedures To Evaluate Trade-off
Deterministic Approach
Statistical Approach
Statistical Example
Engineering Judgment Approach
Trade-offs Based on Data Analysis
Discard-at-Failure Maintenance or
Repair Trade-off
Splice Band Trade-off
Other Required System Data Elements
Data System Characteristics
Automated Data Systems
Cost Analysis
Maintenance Cost Factors
Labor Used in Maintenance
Equipment Inventories
Unserviceable Items Awaiting Maintenance
Personnel Training ,
Repair Parts
Special Tools
Contract Maintenance vs Military Maintenance
Equipment Publications
Life Cycle Cost Analysis
Cost Estimating Relationship
Engineered Cost Estimate
Consequential Costs
Cost Models
Explicit 'Equations
Short Form Equations
Model Application

Chapter 9, Diagnosis and Troubleshooting
The Diagnosis and Troubleshooting Process
Symptom Identification
Malfunction Localization
Malfunction Isolation
Influencing Factors
Maintenance Concept
Built-in Troubleshooting Aids and Features
Test, Measurement, and Diagnostic Equipment (TMDE)..
TMDE and Personnel Interface
TMDE Index and Register
Diagnosis and Troubleshooting Considerations by
Fixed Plant/Defense Communications and USASA
Army Aircraft
Automotive and Mobile Electrical Power Generating
Combat Vehicles and Construction/Materiel Handling
Small Arms
Environment/Temperature Control Equipment
Weapon Systems, Missile Systems, and Munitions
Maintenance Concept
Diagnosis and Troubleshooting
Computer-based Electronic Systems
Tactical Communication and Electronic Equipment
Factors Related to Diagnosis and Troubleshooting
Human Factors and Training
MOS Levels
Advantages and Disadvantages of Test and Diagnostic
Categories and Types
Advantages and Disadvantages
Design Principles
Diagnostic Hierarchy
Trade-offs To Be Considered in Test Equipment
Man-machine Interface
Automatic Testing
Resource Requirements, Operational Availability.
and Logistics
Troubleshooting Techniques and Aids

Introduction 10-1
U.S. Army Materiel Command Commodity Management 10-1
Depot Maintenance Facilities 10-2
Primary Depot Functions 10-2
Miscellaneous Depot Functions 10-4
Basic Depot Organizations 10-5
Depot Shop Division 10-5
Production Control. Production Engineering and Shop Supply Divisions 10-8
Contractor Facilities 10-8
Types of Facilities at All Levels of Maintenance 10-9
Army Maintenance Levels 10-9
Organizational and Aviation Unit Maintenance 10-9
Support Maintenance 10-10
Direct Support Maintenance 10-10
General Support Maintenance 10-10
Aviation Intermediate Support Maintenance 10-11
Depot Maintenance 10-11
Facility Requirements 10-12
Organizational Level Facilities 10-12
Direct Support Level Facilities 10-12
General Support Level Facilities 10-13
Aviation Intermediate Support Maintenance Facilities 10-13
Depot Level Facilities 10-13
Maintenance Facility Work Flow 10-13
Field Support Maintenance Work Flow 10-13
Identifying Requirements and Instituting Repairs 10-13
Evacuation of Unserviceable Items 10-14
Maintenance Floats 10-15
Internal TOE Shop Operations 10-15
Site Selection and Shop Layout 10-15
Scheduling 10-16
Inspection. Work Control, and
Reporting 10-16
Depot Maintenance Work Flow 10-16
Depot Production Planning and Control 10-17
Generation.of Requirements 10-17
Emergency Requirements 10-19
Depot Funding 10-19
Nature of Depot Maintenance Shop Labor Force 10-20
Quantitative Inflexibility 10-20
Skill Flexibility 10-21
Production Processes 10-21
Characteristics of a Production Layout 10-22
Bay Shop or Fixed Station Layout 10-22
Production Line Layout 10'22
Functions and Layout of Support Activities 10-24
Final Maintenance Processing 10-25
Maintenance Facility Requirement Identification and Acquisition 10-25
Requirement Identification 10-27
Facility Acquisition 10-28
Capital Equipment 10-29
References 10-31

Introduction 11-1
Basic Steps of Maintenance Management 11-4
Establish and Implement Maintenance Policies 11-4
Policy Establishment , 11-5
Policy Implementation 11-7
Analyze Materiel 11-10
Develop Logistic Support Objectives 11-12
Use Logistic Models 11-13
Develop Maintenance Engineering Analysis Data 11-14
Update Maintenance Engineering Analysis Data 11-14
Select Support and Test Equipment 11-14
Identify Transportation and Handling Requirements 11-18
Develop Technical Data 11-18
Identify Facility Requirements 11-19
Implement Personnel and Training Program 11-19
Review Historical Data 11-19
Perform Cost Analysis 11-20
Establish Time Factors 11-20
Use Life Cycle Cost Models 11-21
Maintenance Management Control During System
Development 11-21
Integrated Logistic Support Concept 11-21
Detailed Support Planning 11-23
Cost Analysis 11-24
Historical Field Data 11-25
Contract Compliance Through Maintenance Evaluation 11-26
In-process Reviews 11-29
Type Classification 11-31
Computer Aided Decision Making 11-31
Maintenance Management in Production Maintenance 11-34
General Procedures 11-34
Requirement Inputs 11-36
Work Orders and Reports 11-37
Control of Depot Expenditures 11-37
Estimating Maintenance Time 11-39
Scheduling 11-40
Work Priority 11-40
Maintenance Standards 11-41
Work Measurements 11-41
Production Line Stoppages 11-43
Work Stoppage Prevention 11-43
Availability of Assets 11-43
Availability of Parts 11-43
Availability of Resources 11-44
Shop Scheduling Model 11-45
References 11-47

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