Effects of Discharge Rate and Temperature on Battery Capacity and Life
The rate at which a battery is discharged and its operating temperature have a profound effect on its capacity and life. An example of the effect of discharge rate on battery capacity is shown in Figure A for traction batteries. This figure shows that batteries discharged at a low rate will be able to deliver a higher capacity than those discharged at a high rate.
The depth of discharge also affects the life of a battery. As shown in Figure B for a typical traction battery, discharges beyond about 80% of capacity can be expected to shorten battery life.
Colder operating temperatures will yield a little extra life, but also lower the capacity of lead acid cells. High temperatures yield higher capacity (see Figure C) but have a detrimental effect on life.
Typical effects of discharge rate on battery capacity
Typical effects of depth of discharge on traction battery life
Typical effects of operating temperatures on traction battery capacity