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Air Resistance Force Equation and Calculator.

Power Transmission Design and Engineering
Engineering and Design Applications

Air Resistance Force to Vehicle Forward Motion Equation and Calculator.

A vehicle can move along only if the sum of all resistances is overcome. Resistances are forces that either balance out the driving force (uniform movement) or are smaller than the driving force (accelerated movement).

FL = 0.6 · cW · A · v2

Where:

FL = Air resistance force, (N)
cW = Drag coefficient
A = Frontal area (m2)
v = Air velocity relative to object (m/s)

Air Drag Coefficient
Vehicle or Object
0.001
laminar flat plate parallel to the flow
0.005
turbulent flat plate parallel to the flow
0.075
Pac-car
0.076
Milan SL
0.1
smooth sphere
0.47
smooth sphere
0.14
Fiat Turbina 1954
0.15
Schlörwagen 1939
0.18
Mercedes-Benz T80 1939
0.186-0.189
Volkswagen XL1 2014
0.19
General Motors EV1 1996
0.212
Tatra 77A 1935
0.23
Tesla Model 3, Audi A4 B9 (2016)
0.235
Renault Eolab
0.24
Hyundai Ioniq
0.24
Tesla Model S
0.24
Toyota Prius (4th Generation)
0.25
Toyota Prius (3rd Generation)
0.26
BMW i8
0.26
Nissan GT-R (2011-2014)
0.27
BMW E39 5 Series (1995-2003, Germany)
0.27
Nissan GT-R (2007-2010)
0.27
Chrysler 200 (2015-2017)
0.28
1969 Dodge Charger Daytona
1970 Plymouth Superbird
0.28
1986 Opel Omega saloon.
0.28
Mercedes-Benz CLA-Class Type C 117.
0.29
Mazda3 (2007)
0.295
bullet (not ogive , at subsonic velocity)
0.3
Saab 92 (1949),
Audi 100 C3 (1982)
0.31
Maserati Ghibli Sedan (2014)
0.324
Ford Focus Mk2/2.5 (2004-2011, Europe)
0.33
BMW E30 3 Series (1984-1993, Germany)
0.35
Maserati Quattroporte V (M139, 2003–2012)
0.36
Citroen CX (1974-1991, France),
Tesla Semi (2017, United States of America)
0.37
Ford Transit Custom Mk8 (2013, Turkey)
0.48
rough sphere
0.58
Jeep Wrangler TJ (1997-2005)
0.75
a typical model rocket
1.0
coffee filter, face-up
1.0
road bicycle plus cyclist, touring position
1.0–1.1
skier
1.0–1.3
wires and cables
1.0–1.3
man (upright position)
1.1-1.3
ski jumper
1.2
Usain Bolt
1.28
flat plate perpendicular to flow (3D)
1.3–1.5
Empire State Building
1.4
Formula 1 Race Car
1.8–2.0
Eiffel Tower
1.98–2.05
flat plate perpendicular to flow (2D)
Air Drag Coefficient Shape object
0.47
Sphere Sphere
0.42
Half sphere Half sphere
0.5
Cone Cone
1.05
Cube Cube
0.80
Angled cube Angled cube
0.82
Long cylinder Long cylinder
1.15
Short cylinder Short cylinder
0.04
Streamlined body Streamlined body
0.09
Streamlined half-body Streamlined half-body
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