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### Thick-walled Cylinders of Ductile Material, Closed Ends Clavarino's Formula and Calculator

Clavarino's formula is applicable to cylinders with closed ends made of ductile materials. Maximum principal strain theory is taken in this case

Pressure. In designing a cylinder to withstand internal pressure, the choice of formula to be used depends on:
1) the kind of material of which the cylinder is made (whether brittle or ductile);
2) the construction of the cylinder ends (whether open or closed); and
3) whether the cylinder is classed as a thin- or a thick-walled cylinder.

A cylinder is considered to be thin-walled when the ratio of wall thickness to inside diameter is 0.1 or less and thick-walled when this ratio is greater than 0.1. Materials such as cast iron, hard steel, and cast aluminum are considered to be brittle materials; low-carbon steel, brass, bronze, etc. are considered to be ductile. Where:

p = internal pressure, psi;
D = inside diameter of cylinder, inches;
t = wall thickness of cylinder, inches;
S = allowable tensile stress, psi.
μ = Poisson’s ratio, = 0.3 for steel, 0.26 for cast iron, 0.34 for aluminum and brass;

If metric SI units are used, then:

p = internal pressure in newtons per square meter
D = internal diameter of shell in meter
S = safe tensile stress in newtons per square meter
t = thickness of metal in the shell, in meter

Reference: Machinerys Handbook 30th Edition

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