# Geometric Boundaries IV The Interpretation and Application of GD&T[ASME-2018-IV]

Geometric Boundaries IV The Interpretation and Application of GD&T
Based on:
ASME Y14.5-2018 (Revision of ASME Y14.5-2009)
ASME Y14.41-2012 Digital Product Definition Practices

Geometric Boundaries IV is a practical guide for the interpretation and application of GD&T. You will find comprehensive and easy to read illustrations on all relevant dimensioning and tolerancing subject areas. This training and desktop reference book is a valuable resource that details the symbology on: datum's, limit tolerancing, true position, flatness, straightness, circularity (Roundness), independency application, perpendicularity, parallelism, profile of surface, profile of line, runout tolerances, special applications and more!. This book is perfect for individuals new and experienced in applying the principles of geometric tolerancing and dimensioning. It shows how to break down the language of geometric product definition into a series of steps that ensure that the reader can interpret and apply GD&T. Each chapter is designed to elicit a response based on functionality, cost effectiveness, producibility, ease of inspection, and many other factors that must be considered to optimize the dimensioning and tolerancing method for design, manufacturing and inspection.

Author Kelly L. Bramble,
FAA Airframe and Powerplane Licensed
Certified ASME Senior Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing Professional S-150
Geometric Boundaries III The Interpretation and Application of ASME Y14.5-2009 is soft bound
431 pages.
Published 2019.

TOC

1.2 Preface
1.3 Acknowledgments
1.12 Introduction
1.13 Engineering Drawing Standards First and Third Angle Projection
1.14 Standards Based on ISO or ASME Standards
1.16 Corporate Standards
1.17 How the Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing System Works
1.18 Tolerances, Features and Characteristics Overview
1.27 Tolerance Hierarchy
1.28 Feature Control Frame
1.29 Position and Limit Tolerance General Overview and Contrast
1.30 Common Symbols
1.31 Fundamental Rules

2.1 Limit Tolerancing
2.2 Limit tolerancing, Square Tolerance, Zone and Overview
2.3 Tolerance Application and Method, Basic Dimensions
2.4 Implied 90 Degree Angle, Dimensional Expression
2.5 Dimension and Tolerance Expression– Millimeter Tolerances and Dimensions
2.7 Inch Tolerances and Dimensions
2.9 Oblique, Point and Limited Area Dimensioning
2.11 Dimensions Not to Scale
2.14 Slotted holes, Arcs, Countersink hole
2.15 Countersunk, Counterbored Holes
2.17 Rectangular Coordinate Dimensioning
2.19 Repetitive Features
2.20 Flat Taper
2.21 Conical Taper
2.22 Statistical Tolerancing
2.23 Dimension Origin
2.24 Screw Threads Tolerance Application, Gears and Splines
2.25 Angular Surface Defined by Limit and Angle Dimension
2.27 Controlled Radius Tolerance
2.28 Knurling, Rods and Tubing Specification, Surface Roughness or Texture
2.29 Features With and Without Size
2.30 Material Condition, MMC, MMB LMC, LMB
2.31 Mating Envelope
2.33 Rule #1, Envelope Principle
2.36 Exceptions to Rule #1, Independency Application
2.37 Rule #2 Material Condition Requirements
2.38 Continuous Feature
2.40 Limitations of the Limits of Size

3.1 Datums
3.2 Immobilization of component and measurement
3.3 Datum identification General
3.4 Datum symbols and identification Datum identification features without size
3.6 Datum identification features with size
3.7 Datum Identification Features with Size Alternative and Special Applications
3.9 Datum associated with feature control frame
3.12 Datum feature, simulated datum, and theoretical datum plane
3.14 Primary External Datum Diameter
3.15 Primary internal Datum Diameter
3.16 Primary External Datum Width
3.17 Primary Internal Datum Width
3.18 Degrees of Freedom
3.19 Planar Datum Feature
3.20 Datum Center Plane Element
3.21 Datum Cylindrical Feature
3.22 Datum Conical Shapes Feature
3.23 Datum Spherical Center Point
3.25 Datum Linear Tapered Complex Feature
3.26 Primary Datum Features Reference Chart
3.27 Setup and Inspection of Datums
3.29 Sequence of Datum Features
3.31 Parts with Angular Orientation
3.33 Cylindrical Datum Feature
3.34 Orientation of Two Datum Planes Through a Hole
3.36 Datum Reference Frame With Translation Modifier
3.38 Partial Datum Surface(s) as Datum Features
3.39 Partial Contoured Datum Surface
3.40 Multiple Datum Features, Single Datum
3.45 Conical Datum Feature Constraining a Rotational Degree of Freedom
3.46 Conical Datum Feature Constraining Rotational Degree of Freedom With secondary Datum Constraint
3.47 Inclined Datum Features

4.1 Datum Targets
4.2 Datum Features and Datum Target Symbols
4.3 Datum Target Point Symbol, Application
4.5 Datum Target Area
4.6 Datum Target Line
4.7 Dimensioning Datum Targets
4.8 Primary Datum Plane Established by Three Datum Target Areas
4.11 Primary Datum Plane Established by Two Datum Target Points and One Datum Target Line.
4.12 Step Datum Feature
4.14 Datum Target Lines and Areas
4.15 Primary Datum Axis Established by Datum Target points on a Single Cylindrical Feature
4.16 Equalizing Datum
4.19 Secondary Datum Axis
4.20 Moveable Datum Targets
4.23 Sheet Metal With Multiple Datum Targets in Restrained Condition
4.24 Datum target design examples

5.1 Form
5.2 Flatness
5.4 Flatness Applied on a Unit Basis
5.5 Flatness Applied on Unit Basis With Overall Control
5.6 Flatness Applied to Derived Median Plane at RFS
5.8 Flatness Applied to Derived Median Plane at MMC
5.9 Straightness
5.10 Straightness Per Unit Basis
5.11 Straightness Applied in Two Directions
5.13 Straightness of a Surface (Cylindrical)
5.14 Straightness of a Feature of Size @ RFS
5.15 Straightness of a Feature of Size @ MMC
5.19 Straightness Per Unit Length With Specified Total Straightness
5.21 Cylindricity
5.23 Circularity (Roundness)
5.24 Circularity of Cone
5.26 Circularity of Sphere
5.27 Circularity or Cylindricity Applied with Average Diameter

6.1 Tolerance of Orientation
6.2 Perpendicularity - Surface
6.3 Perpendicularity – Surface Two Datum's
6.4 Perpendicularity – Center plane
6.5 Perpendicularity at MMC Internal Feature – Center Plane
6.6 Perpendicularity – External Feature of Size Axis
6.8 Perpendicularity – Internal Feature of Size Axis
6.9 Perpendicularity –Threaded Hole or Inserts Projected Tolerance Zone
6.10 Parallelism
6.11 Parallelism Control of Two Hole Features
6.12 Parallelism Hole Relative to Plane
6.13 Angularity Overview and Surface to Surface
6.14 Angularity Surface to Surface with Location Control
6.15 Angularity Hole to Planar Datum
6.16 Secondary Datum Application
6.18 Specifying Parallelism for an Axis (Both Feature and Datum Feature RFS

7.1 Tolerances of Location
7.2 Fundamental Explanation Positional Tolerancing
7.3 Differences Between Position Tolerancing Limit Tolerancing
7.4 Modifiers
7.5 Maximum Material Condition and Boundary
7.6 Least Material Condition and Boundary
7.7 External Feature of Size Position Tolerance Boundaries with Maximum Material Condition MMC Specification and Datum’s at RMB
7.8 Internal Feature of Size Position Tolerance Boundaries with Maximum Material Condition MMC Specification and Datum’s at RMB
7.9 External Feature of Size Position Tolerance Boundaries with Least Material Condition LMC Specification and Datum’s at RMB
7.10 Internal Feature of Size Position Tolerance with Least Material Condition LMC Specification and Datum’s at RMB
7.11 Zero Positional Tolerance at MMC, Datum’s at RMB
7.12 Position Tolerance at RFS and Datum’s at RFB
7.13 Positional Tolerance at MMC Surface and Axis Interpretation of a Hole Feature
7.14 Positional Tolerance Axis and Surface Interpretation – Surface Datum’s
7.15 Positional Tolerance Axis Interpretation - Surface Datum’s
7.16 Positional Tolerance Surface Interpretation - Surface Datum’s
7.17 Positional Tolerance Axis and Surface Interpretation - Thru Hole Datum’s
7.18 Positional Tolerance Axis Interpretation – Thru Hole Datum’s
7.19 Positional Tolerance Surface Interpretation – Thru Hole Datum’s
7.20 Rectangular Coordinate Method
7.21 Positional Tolerance at MMC Relative to Hole and Slot Datum Feature
7.22 Bi-Directional Positional Tolerancing, Polar Coordinate Method
7.23 Different Positional Tolerance at Each Surface
7.24 Circular Pattern of Holes
7.25 Positional Tolerance at MMC Relative to Datum Feature Center Planes
7.26 Positional Tolerance at RFS of Slots Relative to Surface Datum Features
7.27 Coaxial (Concentric) Control of Cylinders
7.28 Coaxial (Concentric) Control of Multiple Hole-Counterbore Holes
7.29 Coaxial Control of Cylinders
7.30 Hole Pattern Located Perpendicular to Cylindrical Datum
7.31 Holes Not Normal to DRF
7.32 Hole Pattern Located at Angle to Datum Reference Frame
7.33 Positional Tolerance at MMC of Spherical Feature
7.34 Positional Tolerance of Coaxial Holes of Same Size
7.35 Calculating Maximum Material Boundary (MMB)
7.36 Least Material Condition Application– Cylinder Wall Thickness
7.37 Positional Tolerance for Coaxiality With Datum Feature referenced at MMB
7.38 Positional Tolerance for Coaxially With Feature Referenced at Zero MMC Relative to Datum Feature at MMB
7.39 Variable Tolerance Boundary Minimum at Nominal Size
7.40 Positional Tolerance - Thru Hole Datum’s at MMC
7.41 Positional Tolerance - Thru Hole Datum Verification
7.42 Composite Positional Tolerancing
7.46 Composite Positional Tolerancing With Pattern Orientation Control

8.1 Profile
8.2 Profile Surface Definition
8.3 Profile of surface, Bilateral Tolerance
8.4 Profile of Surface, Bilateral Tolerance Between Symbol Alternative Practice
8.5 Profile of Surface, Bilateral Tolerance Rectangular Coordinate Dimensioning Without Dimension Lines
8.6 Profile of Surface, Unilateral (INSIDE) Tolerance
8.9 Profile of Surface, Unilateral (OUTSIDE) Tolerance
8.12 Profile of Surface, Bilateral Unequal Tolerance
8.14 Profile of Surface, All Around
8.15 Profile of Surface, All Over
8.16 Profile of Surface, Independent Form Control
8.17 Nonuniform Profile Tolerance Zone With Zones to Smooth Transitions
8.18 Profile of Surface, Boundary Principle
8.19 Profile Tolerance for Coplanar Surfaces
8.21 Profile of Line
8.22 Profile of Line Tapered Shape
8.23 Profile of Line Unilateral Inside
8.24 Profile of Line Unilateral Inside Alternative Practice
8.25 Profile of Line Unilateral Outside
8.29 Composite Profile Tolerances
8.31 Non-Uniform Zone
8.32 Profile of Surface With Datum at
MMC

9.1 Runout
9.2 Circular Runout
9.6 Total Runout
9.9 Run-Out With Plane as Datum
9.10 Run-Out Relative to Datum Surface and a Diameter
9.12 Run-Out With Two Datum Diameters
9.13 Multiple Cylinders Related to Each Other Runout Application
9.14 Runout Relating Separate Features to Each Other with Common Datum

10.1 Coaxial Tolerance Comparison

11.1 Tolerance Analysis
11.3 Tolerance Conversion Unilateral, Bilateral
11.4 Series Stack
11.5 Floating Fastener Condition
11.6 Fixed Fastener Condition
11.7 Tolerance Compensation for Projected Tolerance Zone – Fixed Fastener condition
11.9 Two Mating Coaxial/Coplanar Features at MMC
11.10 Three Mating Coaxial/Coplanar Features at MMC
11.11 Six Sigma Concepts
11.12 Increasing the Cp Level to Reach Six Sigma
11.13 Graphical Representations of Distributions
11.16 Linear Six Sigma Calculations
11.17 Linear Three Sigma Calculations
11.18 Position Tolerance Calculation and Hole Pattern Analysis
11.20 Coordinate to Position Tolerance Conversion Chart
11.25 Generic Hole Verification Chart

12.1 Critical Feature Drawing (Reduced Dimension Drawing)
12.2 Implementation Considerations Applicable Documents, Overview
12.3 Design Drawing Requirements Digital Model and Database
12.4 Quality and Inspection Requirements Manufacturing
12.5 Change Notice Procedure

13.1 3D Drafting and Model Digital Product Definition Data Practices ASME Y14.41 - 2012
13.2 Definitions and Terminology
13.3 Fundamental Dimensioning and Tolerancing Requirements
13.6 Left-Hand and Right-Hand Model Coordinate System Requirements
13.7 3D Model with All Annotation Displayed
13.10 3D Model With Datum Target Annotation
13.14 Attachment Techniques, Fillets, Rounds, and Chamfers
13.15 Attachment Techniques, Countersinks and Oblique Surfaces
13.16 Attachment Techniques, Reliefs and Step Surfaces
13.17 Attachment Techniques, Depth, Spotface, Remaining Thickness
13.18 Attachment Techniques, Notches, Flats, and Pin Heights
13.19 Datum Applications
13.20 Datum System and Coordinate Relationship
13.22 Datum Feature Symbol Attachments
13.23 Partial Datum Features
13.25 Datum Axis From Cylinder
13.27 Two Coaxial Features Establish a Datum Axis
13.28 Coplanar Surfaces Establish a Datum Plane
13.28 Separated Surfaces Establish a Datum Plane
13.29 Flatness Coincident or Perpendicular Annotation Plane
13.30 Flatness Tolerance
13.31 Straightness Directed by Line Element
13.34 Circularity Annotation Methods
13.35 Cylindricity Annotation Methods
13.36 Orientation Tolerances Planar Surfaces
13.40 Profile of Planar, Conical, or Revolved Surface
13.43 Position Tolerance Annotation Methods
13.45 Position Tolerance of Elongated Holes or Slots
13.46 Bi-Directional Position Tolerances Polar or Rectangular
13.47 Position Combined with Profile
13.49 Runout Tolerances Attachment and Associativity
13.52 Design Model Section View / Cutting Plane

14.1 Symbol Comparison
14.2 Comparison of ASME and ISO Symbols (Geometric Characteristics)

15.1 Appendix – Geometric Characteristic Symbol Proportions and Size
15.4 Design Decision Chart
15.5 Datum Selection Decision Chart
15.6 Form Tolerances Decision Chart
15.7 Orientation Tolerances Decision Chart
15.8 Location Tolerances Decision Chart
15.9 Profile Tolerances Decision Chart
15.10 Runout Tolerances Decision Chart
15.11 ANSI Standard Size (Inch) Drills
15.12 ISO Metric (mm) Size Standard Drill Sizes
15.13 ANSI External Screw Threads Sizes 0 - 3/8
15.13 ANSI External Screw Threads Sizes 3/8 – Larger
15.14 ACME Thread Forms – General Purpose External
15.16 ACME Thread Forms – General Purpose Internal
15.17 ACME Thread Forms – Internal Centralizing
15.18 ACME Thread Forms – External Centralizing
15.19 Standard External Pipe Threads
15.20 Standard Internal Pipe Threads

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