Hi and welcome to the forum...
I'd start out with a quick search on the world wide web... Most of what you're asking would require a lot of typing and thing is... it's all already been typed on several different sites. All the nomenclature that goes with the details of a saw as well.
Then there's always the reverse engineering concept. That is where you go buy a saw and then study it.
It's just too much detail along with many... many different types or options, that makes it a difficult thing to throw it all out there. Study up on what you find and if you have any more questions regarding some of the details we might be able to help you out. But you need to do some research on your own first and get a better idea of what is involved.
Saws are a really cool invention... Have fun and Good Luck!