I am currently working on a project where I need to determine the minimum thickness required in some exposed steel penstocks. It seems to be a straight forward project, however I have been having trouble finding information on calculating the internal pressure increase due to water hammer in the penstocks. If anybody has any experience with this I would appreciate your thoughts. Thank you.
For us mechanical types...
Definition: A penstock is a sluice or gate or intake structure that controls water flow, or an enclosed pipe that delivers water to hydro turbines and sewerage systems. It is a term that has been inherited from the earlier technology of mill ponds and watermills.