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Bridge Design Manual
This manual has been prepared to provide Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) bridge design engineers with a guide to the design criteria, analysis methods, and detailing procedures for the preparation of highway bridge and structure construction plans, specifications, and estimates. It is not intended to be a textbook on structural engineering. It is a guide to acceptable WSDOT practice. This manual does not cover all conceivable problems that may arise, but is intended to be sufficiently comprehensive to, along with sound engineering judgment, provide a safe guide for bridge engineering. A thorough knowledge of the contents of this manual is essential for a high degree of efficiency in the engineering of WSDOT highway structures.
Hall Effect Sensors
The Hall effect was discovered by Dr. Edwin Hall in 1879 while he was a doctoral candidate at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. Hall was attempting to verify the theory of electron flow proposed by Kelvin some 30 years earlier. Dr. Hall found when a magnet was placed so that its field was perpendicular to one face of a thin rectangle of gold through which current was flowing, a difference in potential appeared at the opposite edges. He found that this voltage was proportional to the current flowing through the conductor, and the flux density or magnetic induction perpendicular to the conductor. Although Hall’s experiments were successful and well received at the time, no applications outside of the realm of theoretical physics were found for over 70 years. With the advent of semiconducting materials in the 1950s, the Hall effect found its first applications. However, these were severely limited by cost. In 1965, Everett Vorthmann and Joe Maupin, MICRO SWITCH Sensing and Control senior development engineers, teamed up to find a practical, low-cost solid state sensor. Many different concepts were examined, but they chose the Hall effect for one basic reason: it could be entirely integrated on a single silicon chip. This breakthrough resulted in the first low-cost, high-volume application of the Hall effect, truly solid state keyboards. MICRO SWITCH Sensing and Control has produced and delivered nearly a billion Hall effect devices in keyboards and sensor products.
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