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ASTM D3981 Standard Specification for Polyethylene Films Made from Medium-Density Polyethylene for General Use and Packaging Applications

This specification covers unpigmented, unsupported, sheet or tubular, medium-density polyethylene films intended for general uses and packaging applications. The film shall be made from homopolymer polyethylene, copolymer polyethylene commonly referred to as low-pressure polyethylene, or blends of homopolymers and copolymers that include ethylene/vinyl-acetate copolymers. The specimens shall be conditioned before testing in the standard laboratory temperature. Tests shall be conducted to determine the physical properties of the specimens which shall conform to the following physical requirements: secant modulus or stiffness; kinetic coefficient of friction; optical properties such as clarity, gloss, and haze; surface treatment level or wetting tension; impact resistance; tensile strength and elongation at break; heat sealability; and odor level. 1. Scope 1.1 This specification covers unpigmented, unsupported, sheet or tubular, medium-density polyethylene films (hereafter referred to as film or films) from resins having densities in the range from 926.0 to 938.0 kg/m3 (0.926 to 0.938 g/cm3), inclusive, as measured on molded plaques. 1.2 This specification is applicable to homopolymer polyethylene but is not restricted to it. 1.3 This specification is also applicable to films made from copolymer polyethylene commonly referred to in industry as low-pressure polyethylene. 1.4 This specification is also applicable to films made from blends of homopolymers and copolymers, including ethylene/vinyl-acetate copolymers. 1.5 This specification allows for the use of recycled polyethylene film or resin as feedstock, in whole or in part, as long as all the requirements of this specification are met and as long as any specific requirements as governed by the producer and end user are also met (see Note 1). Note 1—Guide D 7209 contains terminology and definitions relating to recycled plastics. 1.6 Special care must be exercised if this specification is applied to colored or pigmented films. This specification does not address specific problems associated with coloring, such as, quantity and quality of pigment dispersion, optical properties, and increase in density. These and other areas must be taken into account by mutual agreement between the supplier and the purchaser. 1.7 The thickness of the films covered by this specification range from 25 to 100 ́m (0.001 to 0.004 in.), inclusive. The maximum width of the sheet or lay-flat is 3.05 m (120 in.). 1.8 This specification does not cover oriented heat-shrinkable films. 1.9 This specification defines the levels of various physical properties from which specifications for specific films are to be described. The levels of physical properties required by a film for a given application are selected from Section 6 and the corresponding tables. However, Sections 7.2-7.5 relating to tolerances shall apply without change to all film falling within the scope indicated by the title and 1.1-1.4. 1.10 This specification covers dimensional tolerances, classification, intrinsic quality requirements, and test methods. The dimensional tolerances include thickness, width, and length or yield. Classification defines types, classes, surfaces, and finishes. The intrinsic quality requirements include density, workmanship, impact strength, tensile strength, heat sealability, and odor, as well as the classification properties for stiffness, coefficient of friction, optical properties, and surface treatment. A sampling method is included. 1.11 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values in parentheses are given for information only. 1.12 The following precautionary caveat pertains only to the test methods portion, Section 10, of this specification: This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Note 2—There is no known ISO equivalent to this standard. 2. Referenced Documents ASTM Standards D1003 Test Method for Haze and Luminous Transmittance of Transparent Plastics D1505 Test Method for Density of Plastics by the Density-Gradient Technique D1709 Test Methods for Impact Resistance of Plastic Film by the Free-Falling Dart Method D1894 Test Method for Static and Kinetic Coefficients of Friction of Plastic Film and Sheeting D1898 Practice for Sampling of Plastics D2103 Specification for Polyethylene Film and Sheeting D2457 Test Method for Specular Gloss of Plastic Films and Solid Plastics D2578 Test Method for Wetting Tension of Polyethylene and Polypropylene Films D4321 Test Method for Package Yield of Plastic Film D4703 Practice for Compression Molding Thermoplastic Materials into Test Specimens, Plaques, or Sheets D4883 Test Method for Density of Polyethylene by the Ultrasound Technique D4976 Specification for Polyethylene Plastics Molding and Extrusion Materials D6988 Guide for Determination of Thickness of Plastic Film Test Specimens D7209 Guide for Waste Reduction, Resource Recovery, and Use of Recycled Polymeric Materials and Products D792 Test Methods for Density and Specific Gravity (Relative Density) of Plastics by Displacement D882 Test Method for Tensile Properties of Thin Plastic Sheeting D883 Terminology Relating to Plastics E1870 Test Method for Odor and Taste Transfer from Polymeric Packaging Film F88 Test Method for Seal Strength of Flexible Barrier Materials -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Index Terms film; general use; medium-density; packaging; polyethylene; recycled; Packing/packaging materials/systems (plastics); Plastic sheet and film--specifications; Polyethylene (PE) sheet and film--specifications; Packing/packaging materials/systems--specifications; ICS Number Code 55.040 (Packaging materials and accessories)


F1895-98 Practice for Submersion of a Membrane Switch

This practice establishes procedures for the submerging of a membrane switch to verify resistance to ingress of a specified liquid. This practice can also be used to verify the ability of a membrane switch or graphics layer to act as a liquid seal for a finished product. Additional test methods or practices can be incorporated to investigate specific results or capabilities. This practice is a modification of National Electrical Manufacturers Assoc. (NEMA) Publication Number 250-1991 Section 6.10, which is a test for submersion of a finished product housing. The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only. NEMA Publication 250-1991


F1842-97 Standard Test Method for Determining Ink or Coating Adhesion on Plastic Substrates for Membrane Switch Applications.


F1762-02 Standard Practice for Exposing a Membrane Switch to Variation in Atmospheric Pressure

This practice covers a procedure for exposing a membrane switch to variations in atmospheric pressure. It can be used to determine the effects of pressure variations on chemical and mechanical properties and functional characteristics of the switch.


F1683-05 Standard Practice for Creasing or Bending a Membrane Switch, Membrane Switch Flex Tail Assembly or Membrane Switch Component

  • This practice establishes a method for the creasing or bending of any part of a membrane switch.
  • This practice can be used with other test methods to achieve specific test results.
  • The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.


F1598-95 Standard Test Method for Determining the Effects of Chemical/Solvent Exposure to a Membrane Switch/Graphic Overlay (Spot Test Method)

This test method covers the testing of any surface that may be exposed to liquid chemical(s). This test method is not designed for immersion testing conditions or material edge attack. This test method is designed for evaluation of visual changes. In certain instances physical (non-visual) changes may occur and functional testing may be appropriate. The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.


F1596-00 Standard Practice for Exposure of Membrane Switches to Temperature and Relative Humidity

This practice covers a procedure for temperature and humidity cycling of membrane switches. This practice is designed to determine changes induced by temperature and humidity. This practice is not intended to be a thermal shock procedure; a gradual ramp rate between conditions is required.


F1843-97 Standard Practice for Sample Preparation of Transparent Plastic Films for Specular Gloss Measurements, on Membrane Switch Overlays

This practice covers the method of sample preparation, prior to taking gloss measurements on a membrane switch overlay. Typical applications include window display areas on a graphic overlay, and surface texture.


F1595-00 Standard Practice for Viewing Conditions for Visual Inspection of Membrane Switches

This practice covers procedures for performing visual inspection of membrane switches. This includes visual inspection of overlays and circuitry. This practice defines lighting parameters, distance from eye to specimen, viewing angle, and the viewing time allowed for a specific size specimen. This practice is only designed for visual inspection of aesthetic qualities of membrane switches. It is not intended for color matching or gloss measurement.


F1682-02 Standard Test Method for Determining Travel of a Membrane Switch

This test method covers the determination of the travel of a membrane switch.


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