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axial flow machines

Pumps, fans, compressors, turbines, etc., in which the fluid flows generally parallel to the axis of rotation.



A type of a.c. generator driven at constant speed to generate the desired frequency.



Heating a metal to, and holding at, a suitable temperature and cooling at a suitable rate so as to reduce hardness, improve machineability, ease cold working, etc.



A mechanical or electrical instrument for measuring the velocity of a fluid stream, particularly wind velocity. The main types are, cup, vane and hot wire.


angle gauges

Sets of metal blocks with two opposite faces at various angles to one another, used separately or jointly to measure angles to a high degree of accuracy.


Air Motor

A motor which converts the energy of compressed air into mechanical energy, usually as a rotation. The main types are axial or radial piston, and vane.


Air-Fuel Ratio

The ratio of the mass of air to mass of fuel entering an internal combustion engine, gas turbine or boiler furnace.


Alternating Current

Abbreviation a.c. Electric current whose flow changes direction cyclicly. The normal waveform is sinusoidal.


Adiabatic process

A thermodynamic process in which there is no transfer of heat between the working substance and the surroundings.



A body shaped so as to produce an appreciable ‘lift’, Le. a force normal to the direction of fluid flow relative to the body, and a small ‘drag’ force in the same direction as the flow. Aerofoil sections are used for turbine blades, wing sections, etc.


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