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Design factor of safety (D.F.S)

The factor of safety at the catalog rated conditions of torque, speed, misalignment, and axial displacement. It is used by the manufacturer to establish the rating.


Diametral crown clearance (Tip clearance)

The clearance between the outside diameter of the coupling’s external teeth (whether on a hub or on a marine spool piece) and the root diameter of the internal teeth in the sleeve when the coupling is in perfect alignment.


Double Aging

Employment of two different aging treatments to control the type of precipitate formed from a supersaturated matrix in order to obtain the desired properties. The first aging treatment, sometimes referred to as intermediate or stabilizing, is usually carried out at higher temperature than the second.


Double Tempering

A treatment in which a quench-hardened ferrous metal is subjected to two complete tempering cycles, usually at substantially the same temperature, for the purpose of ensuring completion of the tempering reaction and promoting stability of the resulting microstructure.


Ductile Cast Iron

A cast iron that has been treated while molten with an element such as magnesium or cerium to induce the formation of free graphite as nodules or spherulites, which imparts a measurable degree of ductility to the cast metal. Also known as nodular cast iron, spherulitic graphite cast iron and SG iron.


Ductile Fracture

Fracture characterized by tearing of metal accompanied by appreciable gross plastic deformation and expenditure of considerable energy. Contrast with brittle fracture .



The ability of a material to deform plastically without fracturing, measured by elongation or reduction of area in a tensile test, by height of cupping in an Erichsen test, or by other means.


Diffusion Coefficient

A factor of proportionality representing the amount of substance diffusing across a unit area through a unit concentration gradient in unit time.



An instrument for measuring the linear expansion or contraction in a metal resulting from changes in such factors as temperature and allotropy


Direct Quenching

(1) Quenching carburized parts directly from the carburizing operation. (2) Also used for quenching pearlitic malleable parts directly from the malleablizing operation.


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