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Mf Temperature

For any alloy system, the temperature at which martensite formation on cooling is essentially finished. See transformation temperature for the definition applicable to ferrous alloys.



The hardness of a material as determined by forcing an indenter such as a Vickers or Knoop indenter into the surface of a material under very light load; usually, the indentations are so small that they must be measured with a microscope. Capable of determining hardnesses of different microconstituents within a structure, or of measuring steep hardness gradients such as those encountered in case hardening.


Microscopic Stresses

Residual stresses that vary from tension to compression in a distance (presumably approximating the grain size) that is small compared with the gage length in ordinary strain measurements. They are not detectable by dissection methods, but can sometimes be measured from line shift or line broadening in an x-ray diffraction pattern.


Malleable Cast Iron

A cast iron made by prolonged annealing of white cast iron in which decarburization or graphitization, or both, take place to eliminate some or all of the cementite. The graphite is in the form of temper carbon. If decarburization is the predominant reaction, the product will exhibit a light fracture surface, hence, "whiteheart malleable;" otherwise, the fracture surface will be dark, hence, "blackheart malleable." Ferritic malleable has a predominantly ferritic matrix; pearlitic malleable may contain pearlitic, spheroidite or tempered martensite depending on heat treatment and desired hardness.



Annealing white cast iron in such a way that some or all of the combined carbon is transformed to graphite or, in some instances, part of the carbon is removed completely.



A precipitation-hardening treatment applied to a special group of iron-base alloys to precipitate one or more intermetallic compounds in a matrix of essentially carbon-free martensite.



(1) A hardening procedure in which an austenitized ferrous workpiece is quenched into an appropriate medium whose temperature is maintained substantially at the Ms of the workpiece, held in the medium until its temperature is uniform throughout--but not long enough to permit bainite to form--and then cooled in air. The treatment is frequently followed by tempering. (2) When the process is applied to carburized material, the controlling Ms temperature is that of the case. This variation of the process is frequently called marquenching.



A generic term for microstructures formed by diffusionless phase transformation in which the parent and product phases have a specific crystallographic relationship. Martensite is characterized by an acicular pattern in the microstructure in both ferrous and nonferrous alloys. In alloys where the solute atoms occupy interstitial positions in the martensitic lattice (such as carbon in iron), the structure is hard and highly strained; but where the solute atoms occupy substitutional positions (such as nickel in iron), the martensite is soft and ductile. The amount of high-temperature phase that transforms to martensite on cooling depends to a large extent on the lowest temperature attained, there being a rather distinct beginning temperature (Ms) and a temperature at which the transformation is essentially complete (Mf).


Machine Language

Computer program instructions and data represented in binary form. In the hierarchy of programming languages, it is the lowest; the computer works directly with it. All high-level languages are translated to machine language by an assembler, compiler, interpreter, or monitor system.


Magnetic Dipole

1. A molecule or particle with a north and south magnetic pole. 2. Any pair of adjacent north and south magnetic poles.


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