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(1) To increase the carbon content of molten cast iron or steel by adding carbonaceous material, high-carbon pig iron, or a high-carbon alloy. (2) To carburize a metal part to return surface carbon lost in processing; also known as carbon restoration.



(1) The formation of a new, strain-free grain structure from that existing in cold-worked metal, usually accomplished by heating. (2) The change from one crystal structure to another, as occurs on heating or cooling through a critical temperature.


Recrystallization Annealing

Annealing cold-worked metal to produce a new grain structure without phase change.


Recrystallization Temperature

The approximate minimum temperature at which complete recrystallization of a cold-worked metal occurs within a specified time.


Rack and Panel Construction

A method of building electronic equipment on a chassis attached horizontally or vertically to a vertical panel. After completion of a unit, the panel is fastened in place on a RACK. Several such panels fill the rack.



1. A microwave system for detecting objects and determining their distance, direction, heading, speed, and other characteristics. Signals from the transmitter are reflected back to the transmitter site by the object, and the reflection (sometimes along with the transmission) is displayed on a cathode-ray screen. The name is an acronym for radio detection and ranging. 2. The theory and application of radio detection and ranging systems as defined in 1.


Radiant Efficiency

The ratio of the radiant energy emitted by a source to the energy consumed by the source. The radiant energy is generally specified within a certain range of wavelengths. An example is the incandescent light bulb, which has relatively low radiant efficiency in the visible spectrum between about 750 and 390 nanometers.



Having the property of emitting alpha, beta, and (sometimes) gamma rays as the result of nuclear disintegration. Also see HALF-LIFE.


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