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Submerged-Electrode Furnace

A furnace used for liquid carburizing of parts by heating molten salt baths with the use of electrodes submerged in the ceramic lining. See immersed-electrode furnace.


Surface Hardening

quench hardening only, a surface layer that is harder or more wear resistant than the core. There is no significant alteration of the chemical composition of the surface layer. The processes commonly used are carbonitriding , carburizing , induction hardening , flame hardening , nitriding , and nitrocarburizing . Use of the applicable specific process name is preferred.


Statistical Quality Control

The application of statistical techniques for measuring and improving the quality of processes and products (includes statistical process control, diagnostic tools, sampling plans, and other statistical techniques).


Stead's Brittleness

A condition of brittleness that causes transcrystalline fracture in the coarse grain structure that results from prolonged annealing of thin sheets of low-carbon steel previously rolled at a temperature below about 705 C (1300 F). The fracture usually occurs at about 45 to the direction of rolling.


Strain Aging

Aging following plastic deformation.


Strain-Age Embrittlement

A loss in ductility accompanied by an increase in hardness and strength that occurs when lowcarbon steel (especially rimmed or capped steel) is aged following plastic deformation. The degree of embrittlement is a function of aging time and temperature, occurring in a matter of minutes at about 200 C (400 F) but requiring a few hours to a year at room temperature.


Stress Equalizing

A low-temperature heat treatment used to balance stresses in cold-worked material without an appreciable decrease in the mechanical strength produced by cold working.


Spinodal Structure

A fine homogeneous mixture of two phases that form by the growth of composition waves in a solid solution during suitable heat treatment. The phases of a spinodal structure differ in composition from each other and from the parent phase but have the same crystal structure as the parent phase.


Spray Quenching

A quenching process using spray nozzles to spray water or other liquids on a part. The quench rate is controlled by the velocity and volume of liquid per unit area per unit of time of impingement.


Spring Temper

A temper of nonferrous alloys and some ferrous alloys characterized by tensile strength and hardness about two-thirds of the way from full hard to extra spring temper.


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