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Treatise on Thermodynamics Dr. Max Planck
Treatise on Thermodynamics
Dr. Max Planck
PROFESSOR OF THEORETICAL PHYSICS IN THE UNIVERSITY OF BERLIN
TRANSLATED WITH THE AUTHOR'S SANCTION BY
ALEXANDER OGG, M.A., B.Sc., PH.D., F.INST.P.
PROFESSOR OF PHYSICS, UNIVERSITY OF CAPETOWN, SOUTH AFRICA
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The oft-repeated requests either to publish my collected papers on Thermodynamics, or to work them up into a comprehensive treatise, first suggested the writing of this book. Although the first plan would have been the simpler, especially as I found no occasion to make any important changes in the line of thought of my original papers, yet I decided to rewrite the whole subject-matter, with the intention of giving at greater length, and with more detail, certain general considerations and demonstrations too concisely expressed in these papers. My chief reason, however, was that an opportunity was thus offered of presenting the entire field of Thermodynamics from a uniform point of view. This, to be sure, deprives the work of the character of an original contribution to science, and stamps it rather as an introductory text-book on Thermodynamics for students who have taken elementary courses in Physics and Chemistry, and are familiar with the elements of the Differential and Integral Calculus.
FUNDAMENTAL FACTS AND DEFINITIONS.
I. TEMPERATURE ....... 1
II. MOLECULAR WEIGHT...... 23
III. QUANTITY OF HEAT ...... 34
THE FIRST FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE OF THERMODYNAMICS.
I. GENERAL EXPOSITION ..... 40
II. APPLICATIONS TO HOMOGENEOUS SYSTEMS . . 48
III. APPLICATIONS TO NON-HOMOGENEOUS SYSTEMS . 69
THE SECOND FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLE OF THERMODYNAMICS.
I. INTRODUCTION . ..... 78
II. PROOF ........ 89
III. GENERAL DEDUCTIONS ..... 108
APPLICATIONS TO SPECIAL STATES OF EQUILIBRIUM.
T. HOMOGENEOUS SYSTEMS ..... 125
II. SYSTEM IN DIFFERENT STATES OF AGGREGATION . 139
III. SYSTEM OF ANY NUMBER OF INDEPENDENT CONSTITUENTS 179
IV. GASEOUS SYSTEM . ..... 215
V. DILUTE SOLUTIONS ...... 229
VI. ABSOLUTE VALUE OF THE ENTROPY. NERNST's THEOREM 272