Related Resources: instrumentation

Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineering Design Handbook

 

Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineering Design Handbook
Department of Army

Premium Membership Required
Open: Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineering Design Handbook

Introduction:

The purpose of this handbook is to assemble information pertinent to the establishment of a condition of electromagnetic compatibility for any equipment or system, with itself, and with the environment in which it is to be placed when performing its designated function, and to define procedures to assure that an optimum design is obtained. The major emphasis is on those aspects of the problem of interest
to the equipment design engineer and the system engineer. Special attention is paid to the early stages of development when EMI problems can be solved in an efficient way.

The handbook also will be of use to engineers concerned with assuring the compatibility of equipment with its environment after installation.

THE SIGNAL CONCEPT OF EMC

One can consider that all instances of electomagnetic incompatibility result in the degradation of the ability of a system to transmit information from one intended point to another. An information source generates a message which is then encoded in some convenient form for transmission through a suitable medium. After transmission, the signal is received at some other point where the message is decoded and forwarded to the end user which may be either a human being or some device. This representation is characteristic of the usual communication system in which the signal channel is either a path through which a radio wave propagates such as the troposphere or ionosphere surrounding the earth, or a pair of wires such as in telephone transmission, or a coaxial cable as in closed circuit television and normally is the place at which interference is coupled into the system. Also shown is how interference can enter into the system at other places — such as at the information source, the encoder, o: decoder depending on the nature of the interference source and its location.

Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineering Design Handbook

TOC

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1-1 BACKGROUND INFORMATION 1-1
1-2 THE SIGNAL CONCEPT OF EMC 1-2
1-3 ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE CONTROL 1-2
1-4 PURPOSE OF HANDBOOK 1-2
1-5 SCOPE OF HANDBOOK 1-3
1-6 ORGANIZATION AND USE 1-3
1-6.1 ORGANIZATION 1-3
1-6.2 USE OF HANDBOOK 1-4
REFERENCES 1-4

CHAPTER 2
EMC/EMI REQUIREMENTS AND PROCEDURES
2-1 INTRODUCTION 2-1
2-2 THE ELECTROMAGNETIC ENVIRONMENT 2-1
2-2.1 THE NATURAL RADIO-NOISE ENVIRONMENT 2-1
2-2.2 THE MAN-MADE NOISE ENVIRONMENT 2-1
2-2.2.1 Noise Levels 2-1
2-2.2.2 Intrasystem and Intersystem Compatibility 2-1
2-2.3 THE SIGNAL ENVIRONMENT 2-3
2-2.3.1 Nonmilitary Signal Environments 2-4
2-2.3.2 Military Environments 2-5
2-2.3.2.1 Ground Stations 2-5
2-2.3.2.2 Battlefield 2-5
2-2.3.2.3 Ship and Aircraft 2-5
2-2.3.2.4 Missile 2-5
2-2.3.2.5 Equipment 2-5
2-2.3.2.6 Other Categories 2-6
2-3 SPECTRUM ENGINEERING 2-6
2-4 ACHIEVING ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY 2-7
2-4.1 THE SYSTEM APPROACH 2-7
2-4.2 REVIEW OF APPROACHES TO EMC 2-7
2-4.2.1 The Federal Communications Commission 2-8
2-4.2.1.1 Incidental Radiation Device 2-8
2-4.2.1.2 Restricted Radiation Device 2-10
2-4.2.1.3 Radio Receivers 2-12
2-4.2.1.4 Low Power Communication Devices 2-12
2-4.2.1.5 Industrial, Scientific, and Medical Equipment (SMI) 2-12
2-4.2.1.6 Licensing of Test Facilities 2-12
2-4.2.2 Industry Standards 2-13
2-4.2.3 Department of Defense EMC Program 2-14
2-4.2.4 Department of the Army EMC Program 2-14
2-5 THE EMC PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS 2-14
2-5.1 EMC PROGRAM GOALS 2-14
2-5.2 EMC PROGRAM RESPONSIBILITIES 2-16
2-5.3 PROGRAM ORGANIZATION 2-16
2-5.4 DETAILED REQUIREMENTS 2-17
2-6 EMC PROGRAM PLANNING 2-17
2-6.1 EMC PROGRAM PLAN 2-17
2-6.2 CONTROL PLAN 2-17
2-6.2.1 General 2-17
2-6.2.2 Design Instructions 2-17
2-6.3 TEST PLANS 2-24
2-6.4 FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS 2-26
2-6.4.1 Initiating the RF Allocation Request 2-26
2-6.4.2 Request Processing 2-26
2-6.4.3 DCSOPS Partial Function Summary 2-26
2-6.4.4 SPS Partial Function Summary 2-26
2-6.4.5 IRAC Function Summary 2-26
2-6.4.6 OTP Function Summary 2-27
2-6.5 INTERFERENCE PREDICTION 2-28
2-6.5.1 Analysis Procedures 2-28
2-6.5.2 Applications of Interference Prediction 2-28
2-6.6 COST-EFFECTIVENESS CONSIDERATIONS 2-28
2-7 EMC PROGRAM IMPLEMENTATION 2-30
2-7.1 EMC DECISIONS DURING SYSTEM LIFE CYCLE 2-30
2-7.1.1 Conceptual Phase 2-30
2-7.1.2 Validation Phase 2-33
2-7.1.3 Full-scale Development Phase 2-33
2-7.1.4 Production and Deployment Phase 2-34
2-7.1.5 Summary 2-34
2-7.2 GUIDANCE CATEGORIES 2-34
2-7.2.1 Program Milestones 2-35
2-7.2.2 EMC Guidance Categories 2-36
2-7.2.3 Depth of Guidance 2-36
2-7.2.4 EMC Selection Factors 2-37
2-7.2.4.1 Factor A, Functions of the C-E Portion of a System (func) 2-37
2-7.2.4.2 Factor B, System Type 2-38
2-7.2.4.3 Factor C, Basis of Issue (BOI), Site Selection, and Development 2-39
2-7.2 4.4 Factor D, Evolutionary vs Technologically New Development (evol/new) 2-39
2-7.3 PROGRAM DOCUMENTATION 2-39
REFERENCES 2-40
APPENDIX A. OUTLINE OF CONTENT OF EMC PROGRAM PLAN A-l
APPENDIX B. CONTENT FOR EMI CONTROL PLAN B-l
APPENDIX C. CONTENT FOR EMI TEST PLAN C-l

CHAPTER 3
EMC PHENOMENA
3 0 LIST OF SYMBOLS 3-1
3-1 SOURCE MODELS 3-4
3-1.1 GENERAL COMMENTS 3-4
3-1.2 NATURAL NOISE SOURCES 3-4
3-1.2.1 Electronic Noise 3-4
3-1.2.1.1 Sources of Electronic Noise 3-4
3-1.2.1.2 Levels and Power Spectral Density of Electronic Noise 3-5
3-1.2.1.3 Noise Figure and Noise Temperature 3-6
3-1.2.2 Atmospheric Noise 3-7
3-1.2.2.1 Origin 3-7
3-1.2.2.2 Probability Distribution of Envelope 3-7
3-1.2.2.3 Spatial and Temporal Variations — Long Term Properties 3-7
3-1.2.2.4 Atmospheric Pulse Properties — Lightning 3-12
3-1.2.2.5 Antenna and Brightness Temperatures 3-13
3-1.2.2.6 Temperature of Earth, Sea, and Atmosphere 3-14
3-1.2.3 Extraterrestrial Noise 3-17
3-1.2.3.1 Cosmic Noise 3-18
3-1.2.3.2 Solar Noise 3-18
3-1.2.4 Other Natural Noise Mechanics 3-18
3-1.2.4.1 Triboelectric Noise 3-18
3-1.2.4.2 Precipitation Static 3-20
3-1.3 MAN-MADENOISE 3-20
3-1.3.1 CW Sources 3-21
3-1.3.1.1 Transmitters 3-21
3-1.3.1.2 ISM Devices 3-23
3-1.3.1.3 Local Oscillator Emissions 3-23
3-1.3.2 Switching Transients 3-23
3-1 3 2.1 Switching Action 3-26
3-1.3.2.2 Arcing Phenomena 3-27
3-1.3.2.3 Repetitive Switching 3-33
3-1.3.2.3.1 Rotating Machines 3-33
3-1.3.2.3.2 Gaseous Discharge Lamps 3-33
3-1.3.2.4 Automotive Ignition 3-37
3-1.3 2.5 Semiconductor Switching 3-39
3-3.2.3 Characteristics of Simple Antennas 3-104
3-3.2.4 Field Susceptibility 3-104
3-3.2.4.1 Propagation Effects 3-105
3-3.2.4.2 Transmission Within Line of Sight 3-105
3-3.2.4.3 Miscellaneous Effects 3-107
3-3.2.5 Tropospheric Transmission Beyond Line of Sight 3-110
3-3.2.5.1 Refraction 3-110
3-3.2.5.2 Diffraction Over a Smooth Spherical Earth and Ridges 3-110
3-3.2.5.3 Effects of Nearby Hills — Particularly on Short Paths 3-113
3-3.2.5.4 Effects of Buildings and Trees 3-115
3-3.2.6 Medium-and Low-frequency Ground Wave Transmission 3-116
3-3.3 CONDUCTIVE COUPLING 3-118
3-3.3.1 Introduction 3-118
3-3.3.2 Powerline Coupling 3-119
3-3.3.2.1 Source and Line Models 3-120
3-3.3.2.1.1 Two-terminal Representation 3-120
3-3.3.2.1.2 Statistical Approach 3-121
3-3.3.2.1.3 Resistance Distribution 3-121
3-3.3\2.1.4 Reactance Distribution 3-121
3-3.3.2.2 Typical Characteristics 3-123
3-3.3.2.2.1 5-30 MHz 3-123
3-3.3.2.2.2 0.4-4.9 MHz 3-123
3-3.3.2.2.3 50 kHz to 200 kHz 3-123
3-3.3.3 The Common-mode Concept 3-124
3-3.4 GROUNDING 3-128
3-3.4.1 Genera] 3-128
3-3.4.2 Static and Structural Grounds 3-128
3-3.4.3 Power System Ground 3-129
3-3.4.4 Ground Planes 3-130
3-3.4.4.1 Floating Ground System 3-131
3-3.4.4.2 Single-point System 3-131
3-3.4.4.3 Multipoint System 3-131
3-3.4.4.4 Balanced Coupling Circuits 3-134
3-3.4.4.5 Ground Loops 3-135

CHAPTER4
EMC DESIGN TECHNIQUES
4-0 LIST OF SYMBOLS 4-1
4-1 EMISSION CONTROL 4-3
4-1.1 SIGNAL DESIGN 4-3
4-1.2 MECHANICAL SWITCHES 4-4
4-1.3 DIODES 4-4
4-1.4 TUNNEL DIODES 4-4
4-1.5 TRIODESAND TRANSISTORS 4-4
4-1.6 POWER AMPLIFIER DESIGN 4-4
4-1.7 LINEARIZATION TECHNIQUES 4-5
4-1.8 BALANCED CIRCUITS 4-6
4-2 SUSCEPTIBILITY CONTROL 4-6
4-2.1 SELECTIVITY 4-8
4-2.2 LIMITING 4-8
4-2.3 COHERENT AND MATCHED FILTER DETECTION 4-8
4-3 COUPLING CONTROL 4-8
4-3.1 CONDUCTIVE COUPLING 4-8
4-3.1.1 Decoupling 4-8
4-3.1.1.1 Power Output Stages 4-8
4-3.1.1.2 Tuned Circuits 4-9
4-3.1.1.3 Emitter Followers 4-9
4-3.1.1.4 Interstage Decoupling 4-9
4-3.1.1.5 Flip-Flops 4-10
4-3.1.1.6 Switching Power Supplies 4-10
4-3.1.1.7 Sensitive Audio Amplifiers 4-10
4-3.2 INDUCTIVE COUPLING 4-10
4-3.2.1 Mutual Impedance 4-11
4-3.2.2 Transient Coupling 4-11
4-3.2.3 Constant Magnetic Field 4-12
4-3.3 RADIATIVE COUPLING 4-12
4-4 WIRING AND CABLING 4-12
4-4.1 INTRODUCTION 4-12
4-4.2 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 4-12
4-4.3 WIRES OVER A GROUND PLANE 4-12
4-4.3.1 Magnetic Coupling 4-12
4-4.3.2 Electric Coupling 4-14
4-4.3.3 High Frequency Considerations 4-14
4-4.4 TWISTEDPAIRS 4-15
4-4.5 POWER WIRING 4-15
4-4.5.1 Separation of Motor Loads from Signal Equipment Loads 4-16
4-4.5.2 Separation of Utility Lines from Equipment Loads 4-16
4-4.5.3 Placement of Conduit and Wireways 4-16
4-4.6 CABLE TYPES 4-16
4-4.7 CONNECTORS 4-17
4-4.8 CABLE APPLICATION 4-18
4-4.8.1 General 4-18
4-4.8.2 Multiconductor Cables 4-19
4-4.9 SHIELD GROUNDING 4-20
4-4.10 CONNECTOR GROUNDING 4-21
4-4.11 CABLE SEGREGATION AND HARNESSING 4-23
4-5 FILTERS 4-25
4-5.1 INTRODUCTION 4-25
4-5.2 LUMPED ELEMENT FILTERS 4-29
4-5.2.1 Low-pass Filters 4-29
4-5.2.1.1 Shunt Capacitor Filters and General Capacitor Characteristics 4-29
4-5.2.1.2 Series Inductor Filters and General Inductor Characteristics 4-31
4-5.2.1.3 Low-pass L-Section Filters 4-31
4-5.2.1.4 ir-Section Filter 4-32
4-5.2.1.5 T-Section Filters 4-32
4-5.2.1.6 Multiple Section Filters 4-34
4-5.2.1.7 Effects of Filter Terminations 4-34
4-5.2.1.8 Lossy Filters 4-34
4-5.2.2 High-pass Filters 4-35
4-5.2.3 Bandpass Filters 4-37
4-5.3.4 Band-rejection Filters 4-40
4-5.3 ACTIVE FILTERS 4-40
4-5.4 MICROWAVE FILTERS 4-42
4-5.4.1 Stripline Filters 4-42
4-5.4.2 Waveguide Filters 4-44
4-5.4.2.1 Wide-band Reflective Waveguide Filters 4-45
4-5.4.2.2 Reactive Mode Devices 4-45
4-5.4.2.3 Tuned Cavities 4-46
4-5.4.2.4 Ferrite Filters 4-46
4-5.4.2.5 Absorbing Mode Filters 4-47
4-5.5 FILTER INSTALLATION AND MOUNTING TECHNIQUES 4-47
4-5.5.1 General 4-47
4-5.5.2 Chassis Mounting 4-48
4-5.5.3 Connector Mounting 4-50
4-6 SHIELDING 4-51
4-6.1 INTRODUCTION 4-51
4-6.2 THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS 4-51
4-6.3 DESIGN DATA '. 4-64
4-6.3.1 Absorption Loss 4-64
4-6.3.2 Reflection Loss 4-65
4-6.3.3 Combined Losses 4-65
4-6.3,4 Re-reflection Losses 4-68
4-6.3.5 Examples of Shielding Effectiveness Calculations 4-68
4-6.4 MULTIPLE SHIELDING 4-69
4-6.4.1 General 4-69
4-6.4.2 Multiple Shielding Applications 4-71
4-6.5 IMPERFECTIONS IN SHIELDS 4-72
4-6.5.1 Apertures 4-73
4-6.5.1.1 Formulas for Shielding Effectiveness 4-73
4-6.5.1.2 Shielding Effectiveness Formula Derivations 4-76
4-6.5.2 Aperture Screening 4-80
4-6.5.2.1 Screening 4-82
4-6.5.2.2 Waveguide-below-cutoff Devices 4-90
4-6.5.3 Enclosure Seam Design 4-96
4-6.5.4 Joints in Shields 4-98
4-6.5.4.1 General 4-98
4-6.5.4.2 Groove Gaskets 4-98
4-6.5.4.3 Flat Gaskets 4-98
4-6.5.4.4 Resiliency 4-98
4-6.5.4.5 Joint Classification 4-100
4-6.5.4.6 Insertion Loss 4-101
4-6.5.4.7 Gasket Characteristics 4-101
4-6.5.4.8 Qualification of Gasket Material 4-105
4-6.5.4.9 Panels 4-105
4-6.5.4.10 Connectors 4-105
4-6.5.4.11 Pressure Seals 4-107
4-6.5.5 Cable Shielding 4-107
4-6.6 MAGNETIC SHIELDING TECHNIQUES 4-111
4-6.6.1 Materials 4-111
4-6.6.2 Structures 4-112
4-6.7 SHIELD PENETRATIONS 4-114
4-6.7.1 Direct-view Storage Tubes 4-115
4-6.7.2 Cathode-ray Tubes 4-116
4-6.7.3 Indicating and Elapsed Time Meters 4-116
4-6.7.4 Fuse Holder and Indicator Lamp Openings 4-116
4-6.7.5 Switching Devices 4-116
4-6.7.6 Cables 4-116
4-6.7.7 Conductive Surface Coatings 4-1)8
4-7 GROUNDING AND BONDING 4-118
4-7.1 GROUNDING 4-118
4-7.1.1 Grounding Connections 4-118
4-7.1.2 Chassis Grounds 4-120
4-7.1.2.1 Distribution of Chassis Potential , 4-120
4-7.1.2.2 Circuit Considerations 4-120
4-7.1.2.3 Shield Grounds 4-120
4-7.1.2.4 Printed Circuit Boards 4-123
4-7.1.3 Cable Grounding 4-123
4-7.1.4 Static Grounds 4-124
4-7.1.5 Power Supplies 4-124
4-7.1.5.1 General 4-124
4-7.1.5.2 Separation of AC Neutral from Frame Ground 4-124
4-7.1.5.3 Marine Craft Bonding and Grounding Methods 4-125
4-7.1.5.4 Ground Studs 4-125
4-7.1.6 EarthGround 4-125
4-7.1.6.1 General 4-125
4-7.1.6.2 Grounding in Subzero Weather 4-126
4-7.2 BONDING 4-126
4-7.2.1 General 4-126
4-7.2.2 Types of Bonds 4-126
4-7.2.2.1 Direct Bonds 4-126
4-7.2.2.2 Indirect Bonds 4-127
4-7.2.3 Bonding Impedance 4-127
4-7.2.4 Bond Measurements 4-128
4-7.2.5 Bond Design 4-128
4-7.2.5.1 Physical Requirements 4-128
4-7.2.5.2 Choice of Materials 4-129
4-7.2.5.3 Conductive Adhesives 4-131
4-7.2.5.4 Conductive Pastes 4-132
4-7.2.6 Bonding Applications 4-132
4-7.2.6.1 ShockMounts 4-132
4-7.2.6.2 Rotating Joints 4-133
4-7.2.6.3 Tubing Conduit 4-133
4-7.2.6.4 Hinges 4-135
4-7.2.6.5 Cable Trays 4-135

CHAPTER 5
APPLICATIONS TO SPECIFIC DEVICES
5-0 LIST OF SYMBOLS 5-1
5-1 ROTATING ELECTRICAL MACHINES 5-3
5-1.1 BRUSH PHENOMENA 5-3
5-1.2 COMMUTATION 5-3
5-1.2.1 Design Considerations 5-3
5-1.2.2 Suppression 5-6
5-1.3 ALTERNATORS AND SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS 5-6
5-1.3.1 Design Considerations 5-6
5-1.3.2 Suppression 5-8
5-1.4 INDUCTION MOTORS 5-8
5-1.5 PORTABLE FRACTIONAL-HORSEPOWER MACHINES 5-8
5-1.6 SPECIAL-PURPOSE MACHINES 5-8
5-1.6.1 Rotary Inverter 5-8
5-1.6.2 Dynamotor 5-9
5-1.6.3 Electric Arc Generators 5-9
5-2 POWER DISTRIBUTION 5-9
5-2.1« LOW VOLTAGE DISTRIBUTION 5-10
5-2.1.1 Direct Voltage Distribution 5-10
5-2.1.1.1 Conductive Coupling 5-10
5-2.1.1.2 Inductive Coupling 5-11
5-2.1.2 Alternating Voltage Distribution 5-1!
5-2.1.3 Switching Transients 5-11
5-2.2 HIGH VOLTAGE LINES 5-12
5-2.3 RADIO-NOISE FROM HIGH VOLTAGE TRANSMISSION LINES 5-12
5-2.4 GAP TYPE DISCHARGES 5-22
5-2.4.1 Propagation of Interference 5-22
5-2.4.2 Passive Interference 5-22
5-2.5 INTERFERENCE LEVEL AND QUALITY OF RECEPTION 5-25
5-3 POWER CONTROL 5-25
5-3.1 SWITCH POWER CONTROL 5-25
5-3.1.1 Interference Generation 5-25
5-3.1.2 Interference Reduction 5-27
5-3.1.2.1 Use of Diodes and Varistors 5-29
5-3.1.2.2 Interference Reduction Circuits 5-31
5-3.1.2.3 Summary 5-34
5-3.2 CONTINUOUS POWER CONTROL 5-36
5-3.2.1 Distortion Levels 5-41
5-3.2.2 Effects on Connected Apparatus 5-42
5-3.2.3 Susceptibility of SCR Circuits 5-42
5-4 LIGHTING 5-43
5-4.1 INTRODUCTION 5-43
5-4.2 FLUORESCENT LAMPS 5-43
5-4.2.1 Emission Levels 5-44
5-4.2.2 Interference Reduction 5-47
5-4.2.2.1 Radiation 5-47
5-4.2.2.2 Conduction 5-49
5-5 ELECTRONIC POWER SUPPLIES 5-49
5-5.1 INTRODUCTION 5-49
5-5.2 CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS 5-53
5-5.3 COMPONENTS 5-53
5-5.3.1 Vacuum and Gas Tubes 5-53
5-5.3.2 Radio Frequency Components 5-53
5-5.3.3 Semiconductor Generated EMI 5-53
5-5.3.3.1 General 5-53
5-5.3.3.2 Diode Recovery Time 5-53
5-5.3.3.3 Forward Recovery 5-53
5-5.3.3.4 SCR Recovery 5-53
5-5.3.3.5 SCR Turn On 5-55
5-5.3.4 Transformers 5-55
5-5.3.4.1 Electrostatic Shielding of Transformers 5-55
5-5.3.4.2 Electromagnetic Shielding of Transformers 5-55
5-5.3.5 Relays 5-56
5,5.4 SUPPLY LINE HARMONICS 5-56
5-5.4.1 Single-Phase Power Supply Rectifier Circuits 5-56
5-5.4.1.1 Half-wave Rectifiers 5-59
5-5.4.1.2 Full-wave Rectifiers 5-59
5-5.4.1.3 Bridge Rectifiers 5-59
5-5.4.2 Multiphase Rectifier Circuits 5-59
5-5.4.2.1 Harmonic Content of Multiphase Rectifier Circuits 5-59
5-5.4.2.2 Multiphase Rectifier Designs 5-59
5-5.5 INTERFERENCE CONTROL METHODS 5-59
5-5.5.1 Filtering 5-59
5-5.5.1.1 Conventional L-C Filters 5-59
5-5.5.1.2 Compatible Lossy Filters 5-62
5-5.5.1.3 Common-mode Filtering 5-62
5-5.5.1.4 Filter Installation 5-68
5.5.5.2 Shielding 5-68
5-5.5.3 Relay Transient Suppression 5-69
5-5.5.4 Voltage Regulators 5-69
5-5.5.4.1 Linear Voltage Regulators 5-69
5-5.5.4.2 Prevention of Oscillation 5-70
5-5.5.4.3 Switching Regulators 5-70
5-5.5.4.4 Applications 5-71
5-5.5.4.5 Transient Suppression 5-71
5-6 VEHICLES AND OTHER ENGINE DRIVEN EQUIPMENT 5-74
5-6.1 INTRODUCTION 5-74
5-6.2 INTERFERENCE GENERATION 5-74
5-6.3 SUPPRESSION AND CONTROL TECHNIQUES 5-74
5-6.3.1 Nonignition Equipment 5-74
5-6.3.1.1 Rotating Machinery 5-76
5-6.3.1.2 Switching Devices .. .• 5-76
5-6.3.1.3 Static Electric Discharges 5-77
5-6.3.2 Ignition System Suppression 5-77
5-6.3.2.1 Resistor Suppression 5-80
5-6.3.2.2 Shielding 5-83
5-6.4 MISCELLANEOUS ENGINE-DRIVEN EQUIPMENT 5-85
5-6.4.1 Truck Suppression 5-88
5-6.4.2 Material Handling Crane 5-88
5-7 RECEIVERS 5-88
5-7.1 INTRODUCTION 5-88
5-7.2 EMISSION 5-88
5-7.3 SUSCEPTIBILITY 5-89
5-7.3.1 Admission Ports 5-89
5-7.3.2 Nonantenna Inputs 5-89
5-7.3.3 Antenna Inputs 5-89
5-7.4 INTERFERENCE REDUCTION TECHNIQUES 5-92
5-7.5 MILLIMETER WAVE RECEIVERS 5-93
5-7.6 INTERFERENCE EFFECT IN DIGITAL RECEIVERS 5-94
5-8 TRANSMITTERS 5-96
5-8.1 INTRODUCTION 5-96
5-8.2 POWER AND BANDWIDTH LIMITING 5-97
5-8.3 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 5-99
5-8.4 SIDEBAND SPLATTER AND ITS SUPPRESSION 5-102
5-8.4.1 Mechanism 5-102
5-8.4.2 Control of Sideband Splatter 5-103
5-8.5 HARMONIC GENERATION AND SUPPRESSION 5-103
5-8.5.1 Balanced Modular 5-105
5-8.5.2 Amplifier Linearity Control 5-106
5-8.5.3 Microwave Circuit Design 5-107
5-8.6 TRANSMITTER INTERFERENCE 5-111
5-8.7 INTERMODULATION AND CROSS-MODULATION 5-112
5-8.8 OTHER SPURIOUS OUTPUTS 5-112
5-9 RADAR EQUIPMENT 5-112
5-9.1 INTRODUCTION 5-112
5-9.2 RADAR EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS 5-113
5-9.2.1 Frequency Band Utilization 5-113
5-9.2.2 Time-Frequency Characteristics of Radar Pulse Waveforms 5-113
5-9.2.3 Spurious Emissions 5-116
5-9.2.3.1 Harmonics 5-117
5-9.2.3.2 Adjacent Band Spurious Noise 5-118
5-9.2.3.3 Transmitter Stability Considerations 5-118
5-9.3 RADAR SUSCEPTIBILITY 5-118
5-9.3.1 Effects of Interfering Signals 5-118
5-9.3.2 Sources of Interfering Signals 5-120
5-9.3.2.1 The Radar's Own Transmitter 5-120
5-9.3.2.2 Undesired Echoes 5-120
5-9.3.2.3 Environmental Fields 5-120
5-9.3.2.4 Natural Sources 5-121
5-9.3.2.5 Communication and Navigational Signals 5-121
5-9.3.2.6 Other Radars 5-121
5-9.3.2.7 Electronic Countermeasures (ECM) 5-121
5-9.4 INTERFERENCE CONTROL 5-121
5-9.4.1 Directional Selectivity 5-121
5-9.4.2 Time Selectivity 5-121
5-9.4.3 Frequency Selectivity 5-122
5.9.4.4 Amplitude Selectivity 5-122
5-9.4.5 Waveform Selectivity 5-122
5-10 ANTENNA INTERACTION CONTROL 5-123
5-10.1 INTRODUCTION 5-123
5-10.2 INTERACTION COMPUTATIONS 5-123
5-10.3 ANTENNA PARAMETERS 5-124
5-10.4 PRESENTLY AVAILABLE PERFORMANCE DATA 5-124
5-10.4.1 Thin Dipoles 5-124
5-10.4.2 Dipole Arrays 5-129
5-10.4.3 Disc-cone Antennas 5-129
5-10.4.4 Exponential Horns 5-129
5-10.4.5 Horn Parabola 5-135
5-10.5 DESIGN IMPROVEMENTS 5-135
5-10.5.1 Thin Dipoles and Disc-cones 5-135
5-10.5.2 Dipole Arrays and Aperture Antennas 5-135
5-10.6 GAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF APERTURE ANTENNAS 5-135
5-10.6.1 Statistical Description 5-135
5-10.6.2 Near Field Considerations 5-140
5-10.6.3 Design Considerations 5-140
5-11 INFRARED EQUIPMENT 5-144
5-11.1 INTRODUCTION 5-144
5-11.2 EQUIPMENT TYPES 5-145
5-11.3 EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS 5-145
5-11.4 SUSCEPTIBILITY 5-146
5-11.5 CONTROL AND SUPPRESSION TECHNIQUES 5-147
5-11.6 INTERFERENCE CRITERIA 5-148
5-12 AIRCRAFT 5-149
5-12.1 INTRODUCTION 5-149
5-12.2 EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS 5-150
5-12.2.1 Power Systems 5-150
5-12.2.2 Radio Systems 5-153
5-12.2.3 Environmental EMI 5-153
5-12.3 SUSCEPTIBILITY 5-155
5-12.3.1 General 5-155
5-12.3.2 Examples 5-155
5-12.4 INTERFERENCE SUPPRESSION 5-155
5-12.4.1 Program Organization 5-156
5-12.4.2 Design Criteria 5-156
5-12.5 INERTIAL NAVIGATION EQUIPMENT 5-156
5-12.5.1 Introduction 5-156
5-12.5.2 System Description 5-156
5-12.5.3 Emissions 5-156
5-12.5.4 Susceptibility 5-157
5-12.5.5 Interference Control 5-157
5-12.6 FLIGHT CONTROL EQUIPMENT 5-158
S12.6.1 Introduction 5-158
5-12.6.2 Sensors 5-158
5-12.6.3 Actuation 5-158
5-12.6.4 Emission 5-160
5-12.6.5 Susceptibility 5-160
5-12.6.6 Control Techniques 5-160
5-12.6.6.1 Useof Fiber Optics 5-160
5-13 AEROSPACE GROUND EQUIPMENT (AGE) 5-161
5-13.1 INTRODUCTION 5-161
5-13.2 EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS 5-161
5-13.3 SUSCEPTIBILITY 5-161
5-13.4 EMC CONTROL 5-162
5-14 SPECIAL CIRCUIT CONSIDERATIONS 5-162
5-14.1 INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 5-162
5-14.1.1 Emission 5-162
5-14.1.2 Susceptibility 5-163
5-14.2 ANALOG CIRCUITS AND DEVICES 5-163
5-14.2.1 Electronic Instruments 5-163
5-14.2.1.1 Emission 5-163
5-13.2.1.2 Susceptibility 5-163
5-15.2.1.2.1 Input and Signal Circuits 5-163
5-14.2.1.2.2 Other Circuits 5-166
5-14.2.2 Synchros 5-166
5-14.2.3 Analog Computers 5-166
5-14.3 DIGITAL DATA SYSTEMS 5-166
5-14.3. P Introduction 5-166
5-14.3.2 Emission 5-166
5-14.3.3 Susceptibility 5-167
5-14.3.3.1 Susceptibility Mechanisms 5-167
5-14.3.3.2 Measured Susceptibility Levels 5-169
5-14.3.4 Interference Reduction 5-169
5-14.3.5 Logic Design 5-170
5-14.4 MICROWAVE CIRCUITS 5-170
5-14.4.1 Emission 5-170
5-14.4.1.1 Tunnel Diode 5-170
5-14.4.2 Susceptibility 5-172
5-14.4.2.1 Masers 5-172
5-14.4.2.2 Parametric Amplifiers 5-176
5-14.4.2.3 Tunnel Diodes 5-176
5-14.4.3 Compatibility Control 5-176
5-14.4.3.1 Transmission Lines 5-176
5-14.4.3.2 Filters 5-181
5-15 TELEMETERING 5-181
5-15.1 INTRODUCTION 5-181
5-15.2 INTERFERENCE SOURCES 5-183
5-15.3 SUSCEPTIBILITY 5-186
5-15.4 CONTROL TECHNIQUES 5-186

CHAPTER 6
SYSTEMATIC PREDICTION
6-0 LIST OF SYMBOLS 6-1
6-1 INTRODUCTION 6-4
6-2 PROCEDURES 6-4
6-2.1 GENERAL 6-4
6-2.2 INTRASYSTEM vs INTERSYSTEM EVALUATION 6-5
6-2.3 NONLINEAR MODELING 6-5
6-2.4 STATISTICAL CONSIDERATIONS 6-5
6-3 DATA FILES 6-5
6-3.1 USAMSSA 6-5
6-3.2 ECAC 6-6
6-4 DESCRIPTION OF PROGRAMS 6-10
6-4.1 INTRODUCTION 6-10
6-4.2 THE ALLEN MODEL 6-11
6-4.2.1 Power Level in Receiver 6-11
6-4.2.2 Expected Values 6-13
6-4.2.3 Receiver Model 6-13
6-4.2.4 Frequency Spectrum Model 6-15
6-4.2.5 Propagation Loss Model 6-15
6*1.2.6 Antenna Gain 6-15
6-4.2.7 Method of Analysis 6-15
6-4.2.8 Availability 6-18
6-4.3 EMETF/IPM 6-18
6-4.3.1 Introduction 6-18
6-4.3.2 Operational Concept 6-18
6-4.3.3 Electromagnetic Compatibility Analysis 6-19
6-4.3.4 Computational Procedure 6-20
6-4.3.5 Availability 6-21
6-4.4 ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY ANALYSIS CENTER (ECAC) 6-22
6-4.4.1 General 6-22
6-4.4.2 Spectrum Utilization 6-22
6-4.4.3 System EMC Analyses 6-24
6-4.4.4 EMC Consultation and Guidance to Research, Development, and Engineering 6-24
6-4.4.5 Model B 6-24
6-4.4.5.1 Environment File Processing 6-25
6-4.4.5.2 Analysis Models 6-25
6-4.4.5.2.1 Transmitter Power 6-25
6-4.4.5.2.2 Transmitter and Receiver Antenna Gain 6-25
6-4.4.5.2.3 Propagation Path Loss 6-27
6-4.4.5.2.3.1 Smooth Earth Path Loss Model 6-27
6-4.4.5.2.3.2 Rough Earth Path Loss Model 6-27
6-4.4.5.2.4 Off-Frequency Rejection 6-27
6-4.4.5.2.5 Receiver Sensitivity 6-27
6-4.4.6 Availability 6-27
6-4.5 INTERFERENCE PREDICTION PROCESS NUMBER 1 6-27
6-4.5.1 Introduction 6-27
6-4.5.2 Analysis Process 6-27
6-4.5.3 Data Outputs 6-28
6-4.5.4 Availability 6-28
6-4.6 COSITE ANALYSIS MODEL 6-28
6-4.6.1 Introduction 6-28
6-4.6.2 Program Models 6-31
6-4.6.2.1 Adjacent Signal Model 6-31
6-4.6.2.2 Noise Model 6-31
6-4.6.2.3 Spurious Emission and Response 6-31
6-4.6.2.4 Intermodulation 6-31
6-4.6.3 Scoring Techniques 6-31
6-4.6.4 Comparison of Measurements and Predictions 6-32
6-4.6.5 Availability 6-34
6-4.7 SHIPBOARD ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPAB1LITY ANALYSIS AND SHIPBOARD ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY ANALYSIS MICROWAVE (NAVSEA) 6-35
6-4.8 SPECIFICATION AND ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY ANALYSIS PROGRAM 6-37
6-4.8.1 Coupling Models 6-37
6-4.8.1.1 Wire-to-Wire Coupling 6-37
6-4.8.1.1.1 Capacitive Transfer 6-37
6-4.8.1.1.1.1 Unshielded Wires 6-37
6-4.8.1.1.1.2 Two-Wire Circuits 6-37
6-4.8.1.1.1.3 Shielded Wires 6-40
6-4.8.1.1.2 Inductive Transfer 6-40
6-4.8.1.1.2.1 Shielded Wires 6-40
6-4.8.1.1.2.2 Twisted Wires 6-41
6-4.8.1.2 Field Coupling 6-42
6-4.8.1.2.1 Generator Fields 6-42
6-4.8.1.2.1.1 Conversion of Voltage to E- Field 6-42
6-4.8.1.2.1.2 Conversion of Current to //-Field 6-43
6-4.8.1.2.2 Field Reception Models 6-43
6-4.8.1.2.2.1 £-Field Transfer Function 6-43
6-4.8.1.2.2.2 //-Field Transfer Function 6-44
6-4.8.2 Model Utilization 6-45
6-4.8.2.1 Compatibility Analysis 6-45
6-4.8.2.2 Specification Development 6-46
6-4.8.2.2.1 Generation Specification Routine 6-48
6-4.8.2.2.2 Susceptibility Limits 6-48
6-4.8.2.3 Waiver Evaluation 6-48
6-4.8.2.4 Use and Insertion of Test Data 6-50
6-4.8.2.5 Program Output 6-50
6-4.8.2.6 Program Availability 6-50
6-4.9 ISCAP 6-52
6-4.9.1 General Description 6-52
6-4.9.2 Data Base 6-52
6-4.9.3 Military Standards Check 6-52
6-4.9.4 Analysis of Transmitter Fundamental, Harmonic, and Spurious Emissions 6-53
6-4,9.5 Receiver Spurious Responses, Intermodulation, and Cross-modulation 6-55
6-4.9.5.1 Description of Analysis Routine 6-55
6-4.9.5.2 Results of Receiver Analysis Routine Operation 6-59
6-4.9.6 Description of Local Oscillator Radiation 6-59
6-4.9.7 Analysis of Cable, Case, and Antenna Coupling 6-59
6-4.9.8 Implementation 6-64
6-4.10 INTRASYSTEM ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY ANALYSIS PROGRAM (IEMCAP) 6-64
6-4.10.1 Introduction 6-64
6-4.10.2 Models 6-64
6-4.10.2.1 Emitters 6-64
6-4.10.2.2 Susceptors 6-64
6-4.10.2.3 Transfer Models 6-65
6-4.10.2.3.1 Filter Models 6-65
6-4.10.2.3.2 Antenna Models 6-65
6-4.10.2.3.3 Field-to-Wire Compatibility Analysis 6-65
6-4.10.2.3.4 Wire-to-Wire Coupling 6-65
6-4.10.3 Basic Analysis Approach 6-65
6-4.10.4 Spectrum Representation 6-66
6-4.10.5 Logic Flow 6-67
6-4.10.6 System/Subsytem Specification Generation 6-69
6-4.10.7 Outputs 6-69
6-4.10.8 Availability 6-71
6-4.11 SIGNCAP I 6-71
6-4.11.1 Objectives 6-71
6-4.11.2 Data Inputs 6-71
6-4.! 1.3 Analysis Process 6-71
6.4.11.4 Data Outputs 6-71
6-4.11.5 Availability 6-71

CHAPTER 7
MEASUREMENTS
7-0 LIST OF SYMBOLS 7-1
7-1 INTRODUCTION 7-2
7-2 TEST REQUIREMENTS 7-2
7-2.1 DEVELOPMENT TESTING 7-2
7-2.2 VALIDATION TESTING 7-2
7-3 INSTRUMENTATION 7-3
7-3.1 MEASURING SYSTEM 7-3
7-3.1.1 Measurement Functions 7-4
7-3.1.2 Detector Functions 7-5
7-3.1.2.1 Peak Detectors 7-5
7-3.1.2.2 Average Detector 7-6
7-3.1.2.3 RMS Detectors 7-6
7-3.1.3 Calibrations and Methods of Use 7-7
7-3.1.4 Summary 7-8
7-3.2 WAVE AND SPECTRUM ANALYZERS 7-10
7-3.2.1 Wave Analyzers 7-10
7-3.2.2 Spectrum Analyzers 7-11
7-3.3 ANTENNAS AND PROBES 7-14
7-3.3.1 Conductive Measurement Sensors 7-14
7-3.3.1.1 Impedance Standardization 7-14
7-3.3.1.2 The Current Probe 7-15
7-3.3.2 Antennas 7-17
7-3.3.2.1 Electric Dipole 7-17
7-3.3.2.2 Magnetic Antennas 7-18
7-3.3.2.2.1 Loop Antennas 7-18
7-3.3.2.2.2 Hall Effect Sensor 7-18
7-3.3.2.2.3 Variable-mu Sensor 7-19
7-3.3.2.3 Half-wave Dipole 7-20
7-3.3.2.4 Broadband Antennas 7-20
7-3.3.3 Calibration 7-23
7-3.4 AUTOMATIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS 7-24
7-4 TEST FACILITIES 7-25
7-4.1 GROUND PLANES 7-25
7-4.2 SHIELDED ENCLOSURES 7-26
7-4.2.1 Attenuation 7-28
7-4.2.2 Construction 7-28
7-4.2.3 Arrangements for Testing 7-28
7-4.2.4 Radiated Emission Testing 7-29
7-4.2.5 Recommended Arrangements 7-29
7-4.2.6 The Anechoic Enclosure 7-29
7-4.2.7 Antenna Pattern Synthesis 7-29
7-4.3 OPEN FIELD TESTS 7-30
7-4.4 ELECTRO-OPTICAL TECHNIQUES 7-30
7-5 MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES 7-30
7-5.1 INTRODUCTION 7-30
7-5.2 MEASUREMENT ACCURACY 7-3!
7-5.3 TEST EQUIPMENT 7-32
7-5.4 LABORATORY TYPE MEASUREMENTS 7-32
7-5.4.1 Probe Measurements 7-32
7-5.4.2 Filter Measurements 7-33
7-5.4.3 Shielding Effectiveness 7-33
7-5.4.4 Articulation Measurements 7-34
7-5.5 EMISSION CHARACTERISTICS 7-34
7-5.5.1 Conducted Measurements 7-34
7-5.5.1.1 Power Line Measurements 7-34
7-5.5.1.2 Signal Lines 7-35
7-5.5.1.3 Antenna Terminals 7-35
7-5.5.2 Radiation Measurements 7-35
7-5.5.2.1 Magnetic Field 7-37
7-5.5.2.2 Electric Field 7-38
7-5.5.2.2.1 Nonantenna Emitted 7-38
7-5.5.2.2.2 Antenna Radiated Emissions 7-38
7-5.6 SUSCEPTIBILITY 7-38
7-5.6.1 Conducted Susceptibility 7-44
7-5.6.1.1 Power Line Susceptibility 7-44
7-5.6.1.2 Intermodulation 7-45
7-5.6.1.3 Cross-modulation 7-46
7-5.6.1.4 Spurious Response and Desensitization 7-47
7-5.6.2 Radiated Susceptibility 7-47
7-5.6.2.1 Magnetic Field 7-47
7-5.6.2.2 Electric Field 7-47
7-5.6.2.3 Transmission Line Technique 7-47
7-5.7 SITE SURVEYS 7-48
7-5.7.1 Frequency Range 7-48
7-5.7.2 Sensitivity 7-49
7-5.7.3 Antennas 7-49
7-5.7.4 Location of Antennas 7-49
7-5.7.5 Data Recording 7-49
7-5.7.6 Calibration 7-50
7-6 EMC TEST FACILITIES 7-50
7-6.1 ARMY FACILITIES 7-51
7-6.1.1 Electromagnetic Interference Test Facilities 7-51
7-6.1.2 Materiel Testing Directorate 7-51
7-6.1.3 Electromagnetic Environmental Test Facility 7-51
7-6.1.4 Electromagnetic Radiation Effects Test Facility 7-51
7-6.1.5 Missile Electromagnetic Effects Test Facility 7-51
7-6.2 NAVAL FACILITIES 7-53
7-6.2.1 Naval Air Test Center (NATC) 7-53
7-6.2.2 Naval Surface Weapons Center 7-53
7-6.2.3 Naval Electronic Laboratory Center (NELC) 7-53
7-6.2.4 Naval Electronic Laboratory Center (NELC), Technical and Environmental Evaluation Division 7-53
7-6.2.5 US Naval Research Laboratory 7-53
7-6.2.6 Naval Avionics Facility 7-54
7-6.2.7 Naval Ship Engineering Center, Norfolk Division 7-54
7-6.2.8 Naval Electronics Systems Test and Evaluation Facility (NESTEF) 7-54
7-6.2.9 Naval Underwater Systems Center (NUSC) 7-54
7-6.3 AIR FORCE FACILITIES 7-54
7-6.3.1 Electromagnetic Interference and Compatibility Branch 7-54
7-6.3.2 Antenna Proving Range 7-54
7-6.3.3 Electromagnetic Test Facility 7-54
7-6.3.4 Electromagnetic Interference and Analysis Facility 7-54
7-6.3.5 Air Force Communication Service (AFCS) 7-54

Spider Optimizer

© Copyright 2000 - 2021, by Engineers Edge, LLC www.engineersedge.com
All rights reserved
Disclaimer | Feedback | Advertising | Contact

Date/Time:


User Reviews/Comments:

There are currently no comments available.


Add a Comment (you must be logged in to post comment Register):
Name:
Email: (Optional)
Comment: