Several major categories of synthetic
lubricants are available including:
(a) Synthesized hydrocarbons.
Polyalphaolefins and dialkylated benzenes are the most
These lubricants provide performance
characteristics closest to mineral oils and are compatible
Applications include engine and turbine
oils, hydraulic fluids, gear and bearing oils, and
(b) Organic esters. Diabasic acid and polyol
esters are the most common types. The properties of these
oils are easily enhanced through additives. Applications
include crankcase oils and compressor lubricants.
(c) Phosphate esters. These oils are suited
for fire-resistance applications.
(d) Polyglycols. Applications include gears,
bearings, and compressors for hydrocarbon gases.
(e) Silicones. These oils are chemically
inert, nontoxic, fire-resistant, and water repellant. They
also have low pour points and volatility, good
low-temperature fluidity, and good oxidation and thermal
stability at high temperatures.