
Modulus of Elasticity, Young's Modulus, Average Properties of
Structural Materials, Shear Modulus, Poisson's Ratio,
Density

Modulus of Elasticity also know as Young's Modulus is the mathematical description of an object or substance's tendency to be deformed elastically (i.e., nonpermanently) when a force is applied to it. The elastic modulus of an object is defined as the slope of its stressstrain curve in the elastic deformation region:
Where:
λ (lambda) = Elastic Modulus
stress = Restoring force caused due to the deformation divided by the area to which the force is applied
strain = Ratio of the change caused by the stress to the original state of the object
Material 
Modulus of Elasticity, E
(lb/in^{2} x 10^{6}) 
Shear Modulus
of Elasticity, G
(lb/in^{2} x 10^{6}) 
Poisson's Ratio
u 
Weight Density
(lb/in^{3}) 
Aluminum Alloys 
10.2 
3.9 
0.33 
0.098 
Beryllium Copper 
18.0 
7.0 
0.29 
0.30 
Carbon Steel 
29.0 
11.5 
0.29 
0.28 
Cast Iron 
14.5 
6.0 
0.21 
0.26 
Inconel 
31.0 
11.5 
0.29 
0.31 
Magnesium 
6.5 
2.4 
0.35 
0.07 
Molybdenum 
48.0 
17.1 
0.31 
0.37 
Monel Metal 
26.0 
9.5 
0.32 
0.32 
Nickel Silver 
18.5 
7.0 
0.32 
0.32 
Nickel Steel 
29.0 
11.0 
0.29 
0.28 
Nylon 
1.5 
0.6 
 
0.04 
Phosphor Bronze 
16.1 
6.0 
0.35 
0.30 
Stainless Steel 
27.6 
10.6 
0.31 
0.28 
Titanium 
16.5 
6.5 
 
0.16 
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