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Metallic Materials and Elements for Aerospace Vehicle Structures

Engineering Analysis
Stress, Deflection Beam Analysis

Metallic Materials and Elements for Aerospace Vehicle Structures
MIL-HDBK-5H
1653 pages

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Scope of Document

This document is intended primarily as a source of design allowables, which are those strength properties of metallic materials and elements (primarily fasteners) that are widely used in the design of aerospace structures. These metallic materials include all systems potentially useful in aerospace and aircraft applications, including those involving reinforcing components. This document also contains information and data for other properties and characteristics, such as fracture toughness strength, fatigue strength, creep strength, rupture strength, fatigue-crack propagation rate, and resistance to stress corrosion cracking. The use of this type of information is not mandatory. Those properties presented as design allowables are listed as A-, B-, or S-basis values (see Section 1.4.1.1 for definition of basis). Data for other properties are presented as typical. The materials included in this document are standardized with regard to composition and processing methods and are described by industry or government specifications. When needed design allowables are not available in this document, the procuring or certifying government agency should be contacted to determine data requirements and documentation, which may be required to justify design values used by the aerospace company.

TOC

Chapter 1
1.0 General 1-1
1.1 Purpose, Procurement, and Use of Document 1-1
1.1.1 Introduction 1-1
1.1.2 Scope of Document 1-1
1.1.3 Use of Design Mechanical Properties . 1-2
1.2 Symbols, Abbreviations, and Systems of Units . . 1-2
1.2.1 Symbols and Abbreviations . . 1-2
1.2.2 International System of Units (SI) . 1-5
1.3 Commonly Used Formulas 1-6
1.3.1 General 1-6
1.3.2 Simple Unit Stresses . . 1-6
1.3.3 Combined Stresses (see Section 1.5.3.5) . 1-7
1.3.4 Deflections (Axial) 1-7
1.3.5 Deflections (Bending) . 1-7
1.3.6 Deflections (Torsion) . 1-7
1.3.7 Biaxial Elastic Deformation . . 1-8
1.3.8 Basic Column Formula 1-8
1.4 Basic Principles and Definitions . 1-8
1.4.1 General 1-8
1.4.2 Stress . . 1-9
1.4.3 Strain . . 1-10
1.4.4 Tensile Properties . 1-11
1.4.5 Compressive Properties 1-13
1.4.6 Shear Properties . . 1-13
1.4.7 Bearing Properties . 1-14
1.4.8 Temperature Effects . . 1-15
1.4.9 Fatigue Properties . 1-17
1.4.10 Metallurgical Instability . . 1-19
1.4.11 Biaxial Properties . 1-19
1.4.12 Fracture Strength . . 1-21
1.4.13 Fatigue-Crack-Propagation Behavior . 1-25
1.5 Types of Failures . 1-29
1.5.1 General 1-29
1.5.2 Material Failures . . 1-29
1.5.3 Instability Failures . 1-30
1.6 Columns . . 1-31
1.6.1 General 1-31
1.6.2 Primary Instability Failures 1-31
1.6.3 Local Instability Failure . . 1-32

Chapter 2
2.0 Steel . . 2-1
2.1 General 2-1
2.1.1 Alloy Index 2-1
2.1.2 Material Properties 2-2
2.1.3 Environmental Considerations 2-5
2.2 Carbon Steels . 2-6
2.2.0 Comments on Carbon Steels . . 2-6
2.2.1 AISI 1025 . 2-7
2.3 Low-Alloy Steels (AISI Grades and Proprietary Grades) 2-10
2.3.0 Comments on Low-Alloy Steels (AISI and Proprietary Grades) . 2-10
2.3.1 Specific Alloys 2-15
2.4 Intermediate Alloy Steels . 2-67
2.4.0 Comments on Intermediate Alloy Steels . . 2-67
2.4.1 5Cr-Mo-V . 2-67
2.4.2 9Ni-4Co-0.20C 2-75
2.4.3 9Ni-4Co-0.30C 2-80
2.5 High-Alloy Steels . 2-92
2.5.0 Comments on High-Alloy Steels . . 2-92
2.5.1 18 Ni Maraging Steels . 2-94
2.5.2 AF1410 2-105
2.5.3 AerMet 100 2-108
2.6 Precipitation and Transformation-Hardening Steels (Stainless) . 2-116
2.6.0 Comments on Precipitation and Transformation-Hardening
Steels (Stainless) . . 2-116
2.6.1 AM-350 2-116
2.6.2 AM-355 2-123
2.6.3 Custom 450 2-129
2.6.4 Custom 455 2-141
2.6.5 PH13-8Mo . 2-152
2.6.6 15-5PH 2-162
2.6.7 PH15-7Mo . 2-177
2.6.8 17-4PH 2-189
2.6.9 17-7PH 2-207
2.7 Austenitic Stainless Steels 2-214
2.7.0 Comments on Austenitic Stainless Steel . . 2-214
2.7.1 AISI 301 . . 2-216
2.8 Element Properties 2-231
2.8.1 Beams . 2-231
2.8.2 Columns . . 2-231

Chapter 3
3.0 Aluminum . 3-1
3.1 General 3-1
3.1.1 Aluminum Alloy Index 3-2
3.1.2 Material Properties 3-2
3.1.3 Manufacturing Considerations 3-22
3.2 2000 Series Wrought Alloys . 3-26
3.2.1 2014 Alloy . 3-26
3.2.2 2017 Alloy . 3-64
3.2.3 2024 Alloy . 3-67
3.2.4 2025 Alloy . 3-149
3.2.5 2090 Alloy . 3-152
3.2.6 2124 Alloy . 3-155
3.2.7 2219 Alloy . 3-164
3.2.8 2519 Alloy . 3-193
3.2.9 2524 Alloy . 3-196
3.2.10 2618 Alloy . 3-198
3.3 3000 Series Wrought Alloys . 3-207
3.4 4000 Series Wrought Alloys . 3-207
3.5 5000 Series Wrought Alloys . 3-207
3.5.1 5052 Alloy . 3-207
3.5.2 5083 Alloy . 3-220
3.5.3 5086 Alloy . 3-226
3.5.4 5454 Alloy . 3-235
3.5.5 5456 Alloy . 3-240
3.6 6000 Series Wrought Alloys . 3-246
3.6.1 6013 Alloy . 3-246
3.6.2 6061 Alloy . 3-250
3.6.3 6151 Alloy . 3-278
3.7 7000 Series Wrought Alloys . 3-281
3.7.1 7010 Alloy . 3-281
3.7.2 7049/7149 Alloy . . 3-289
3.7.3 7050 Alloy . 3-306
3.7.4 7075 Alloy . 3-344
3.7.5 7150 Alloy . 3-403
3.7.6 7175 Alloy . 3-415
3.7.7 7249 Alloy . 3-430
3.7.8 7475 Alloy . 3-434
3.8 200.0 Series Cast Alloys . . 3-462
3.8.1 A201.0 Alloy . . 3-462
3.9 300.0 Series Cast Alloys . . 3-472
3.9.1 354.0 Alloy 3-472
3.9.2 355.0 Alloy 3-474
3.9.3 C355.0 Alloy . . 3-476
3.9.4 356.0 Alloy 3-478
3.9.5 A356.0 Alloy . . 3-480
3.9.6 A357.0 Alloy . . 3-484
3.9.7 D357.0 Alloy . . 3-487
3.9.8 359.0 Alloy 3-490
3.11 Element Properties 3-492
3.11.1 Beams . 3-492
3.11.2 Columns . . 3-492
3.11.3 Torsion 3-495
References . 3-499

Chapter 4
4.0 Magnesium Alloys 4-1
4.1 General 4-1
4.1.1 Alloy Index 4-1
4.1.2 Material Properties 4-1
4.1.3 Physical Properties 4-2
4.1.4 Environmental Considerations 4-2
4.1.5 Alloy and Temper Designations . . 4-3
4.1.6 Joining Methods . . 4-3
4.2 Magnesium-Wrought Alloys . 4-6
4.2.1 AZ31B . 4-6
4.2.2 AZ61A . 4-17
4.2.3 ZK60A . 4-19
4.3 Magnesium Cast Alloys . . 4-27
4.3.1 AM100A . . 4-27
4.3.2 AZ91C/AZ91E 4-29
4.3.3 AZ92A . 4-33
4.3.4 EZ33A . 4-39
4.3.5 QE22A . 4-44
4.3.6 ZE41A . 4-48
4.4 Element Properties 4-53
4.4.1 Beams . 4-53
4.4.2 Columns . . 4-53
4.4.3 Torsion 4-56
References . 4-57

Chapter 5
5.0 Titanium . . 5-1
5.1 General 5-1
5.1.1 Titanium Index 5-1
5.1.2 Material Properties 5-1
5.1.3 Manufacturing Considerations 5-2
5.1.4 Environmental Considerations 5-2
5.2 Unalloyed Titanium . . 5-5
5.2.1 Commercially Pure Titanium . 5-5
5.3 Alpha and Near-Alpha Titanium Alloys . 5-15
5.3.1 Ti-5Al-2.5Sn . . 5-15
5.3.2 Ti-8Al-1Mo-1V 5-27
5.3.3 Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo . . 5-43
5.4 Alpha-Beta Titanium Alloys . 5-51
5.4.1 Ti-6Al-4V . 5-51
5.4.2 Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn 5-94
5.5 Beta, Near-Beta, and Metastable-Beta Titanium Alloys . 5-112
5.5.1 Ti-13V-11Cr-3Al . 5-112
5.5.2 Ti-15V-3Cr-3Sn-3Al (Ti-15-3) 5-129
5.5.3 Ti-10V-2Fe-3Al (Ti-10-2-3) . . 5-133
5.6 Element Properties 5-138
5.6.1 Beams . 5-138
References . 5-139

Chapter 6
6.0 Heat-Resistant Alloys . 6-1
6.1 General 6-1
6.1.1 Material Properties 6-3
6.2 Iron-Chromium-Nickel-Base Alloys . 6-4
6.2.0 General Comments 6-4
6.2.1 A-286 . . 6-4
6.2.2 N-155 . 6-15
6.3 Nickel-Base Alloys 6-19
6.3.0 General Comments 6-19
6.3.1 Hastelloy X 6-21
6.3.2 Inconel 600 6-27
6.3.3 Inconel 625 6-34
6.3.4 Inconel 706 6-45
6.3.5 Inconel 718 6-51
6.3.6 Inconel X-750 . 6-77
6.3.7 Rene 41 6-83
6.3.8 Waspaloy . . 6-90
6.4 Cobalt-Base Alloys 6-96
6.4.0 General Comments 6-96
6.4.1 L-605 . . 6-97
6.4.2 HS 188 . 6-104
References . 6-120

Chapter 7
7.0 Miscellaneous Alloys and Hybrid Materials . 7-1
7.1 General 7-1
7.2 Beryllium . 7-1
7.2.1 Standard Grade Beryllium 7-1
7.3 Copper and Copper Alloys 7-7
7.3.0 General 7-7
7.3.1 Maganese Bronzes 7-8
7.3.2 Copper Beryllium . 7-11
7.4 Multiphase Alloys 7-20
7.4.0 General 7-20
7.4.1 MP35N Alloy . 7-20
7.4.2 MP159 Alloy . . 7-26
7.5 Aluminum Alloy Sheet Laminates 7-31
7.5.0 General 7-31
7.5.1 2024-T3 Aramid Fiber Reinforced Sheet Laminate . . 7-31
References . 7-49

Chapter 8
8.0 Structural Joints . . 8-1
8.1 Mechanically Fastened Joints . 8-2
8.1.1 Introduction and Fastener Indexes 8-2
8.1.2 Solid Rivets 8-9
8.1.3 Blind Fasteners 8-34
8.1.4 Swaged Collar/Upset-Pin Fasteners . . 8-96
8.1.5 Threaded Fasteners 8-111
8.1.6 Special Fasteners . . 8-133
8.2 Metallurgical Joints . . 8-136
8.2.1 Introduction and Definitions . . 8-136
8.2.2 Welded Joints . 8-136
8.2.3 Brazing 8-158
8.3 Bearings, Pulleys, and Wire Rope 8-158
References . 8-159

Chapter 9
9.0 Summary . . 9-2
9.1 General 9-5
9.1.1 Introduction 9-5
9.1.2 Applicability . . 9-5
9.1.3 Approval Procedures . . 9-5
9.1.4 Documentation Requirements . 9-5
9.1.5 Symbols and Definitions . . 9-6
9.1.6 Data Requirements for Incorporation of a New Product into MIL-HDBK-5 . 9-7
9.1.7 Procedures for the Submission of Mechanical Property Data 9-12
9.2 Room-Temperature Design Properties 9-18
9.2.1 Introduction 9-18
9.2.2 Designations and Symbols 9-18
9.2.3 Computational Procedures, General . . 9-21
9.2.4 Specifying the Population . 9-23
9.2.5 Deciding Between Direct and Indirect Computation . 9-25
9.2.6 Determining the Appropriate Computation Procedure 9-26
9.2.7 Direct Computation for the Normal Distribution . 9-29
9.2.8 Direct Computation for the Weibull Distribution . 9-31
9.2.9 Direct Computation for an Unknown Distribution 9-32
9.2.10 Computation of Derived Properties . . 9-33
9.2.11 Determining Design Allowables by Regression Analysis 9-37
9.2.12 Examples of Computational Procedures . . 9-41
9.2.13 Modulus of Elasticity and Poisson’s Ratio 9-59
9.2.14 Physical Properties 9-59
9.2.15 Presentation of Room-Temperature Design Properties . . 9-60
9.3 Graphical Mechanical Property Data . 9-65
9.3.1 Elevated Temperature Curves . 9-65
9.3.2 Typical Stress-Strain, Compression Tangent-Modulus, and Full-Range Stress-Strain Curves . . 9-73
9.3.3 Biaxial Stress-Strain Behavior 9-90
9.3.4 Fatigue Data Analysis . 9-92
9.3.5 Fatigue-Crack-Propagation Data . . 9-147
9.3.6 Creep and Creep-Rupture Data 9-150
9.4 Properties of Joints and Structures 9-169
9.4.1 Mechanically Fastened Joints . 9-169
9.4.2 Fusion-Welded Joints . 9-195
9.5 Miscellaneous Properties . 9-206
9.5.1 Fracture Toughness 9-206
9.6 Statistical Procedures and Tables . 9-213
9.6.1 Goodness-of-Fit Tests . 9-213
9.6.2 Tests of Significance . . 9-217
9.6.3 Data-Regression Techniques . . 9-223
9.6.4 Tables . 9-234
9.6.5 Estimation Procedures for the Weibull Distribution . . 9-256
References . 9-258

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