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 Thermal Expansion of Metal Pipe Temperature changes cause dimensional changes in all materials. Table 1.0 shows the coefficients of expansion for metallic piping materials. For systems operating at high temperatures, such as steam and hot water, the rate of expansion is high, and significant movements can occur in short runs of piping.
Feb 7, 2022
 Time to Freeze Piping Formulas and Calculator Time to Freeze Outdoor / Indoor Piping Formulas and Calculator ASHRAE Freeze Protection. It is important to recognize that insulation reduces heat flow however it does not stop it completely.
Feb 7, 2022
 L Shapes Angles Unequal Legs per Standard GOST 8510-72 Properties of Rolled-Steel (L) Shapes, Angles with Unequal Legs. Standard GOST 8510-72
Feb 5, 2022
 Properties Rolled-Steel L Shapes Standard GOST 8509-72 Notes: Axes x-x and y-y are centroidal axes parallel to the legs. The distance c is measured from the centroid to the back of the legs. Axes U-U and V-V are principal centroidal axes. Standard GOST 8509-72
Feb 4, 2022
 Properties C Shapes Standard GOST 8240-72 Notes: Axes x-x and y-y are principal centroidal axes. For axis y-y, the tabulated value of W is the smaller of the two sectional moduli for this axis.
Feb 3, 2022
 Properties I-Beam Sections per. Standard GOST 8239-72 Properties of Rolled-Steel Shapes I-Beam Sections, Standard GOST 8239-72 h – height of a beam, b – width of a flange, s – thickness of a web, t – average thickness of a flange, I – axial moment of inertia, W – sectional modulus, i – radius of gyration,
Feb 3, 2022
 Elastomeric Bearing Pad Equations A bearing pad of the kind used to support machines and bridge girders consists of a linearly elastic material (usually an elastomer, such as rubber) capped by a steel plate (see figure (a)). Assume that the thickness of the elastomer is h, the dimensions of the plate are a · b , and the pad is subjected to a horizontal shear force Q.
Feb 3, 2022
 Punching Holes in Plate Stress Equations and Calculator A punch for making holes in a plate is shown in Fig. a., the average shear stress in the plate is obtained by dividing the force P by the shear area of the plate.
Feb 2, 2022
 Stress Angled Strut - Supporting Pin Equations and Calculator The average value of the bearing stress between the strut and the pin is found by dividing the force in the strut by the total bearing area of the strut against the pin.
Feb 2, 2022
 Prism Refraction Index from Minimum Angle of Deviation Equations and Calculator Glass prisms are often used to bend light in a given direction as well as to bend it back again (retroreflection). The process of refraction in prisms is understood easily with the use of light rays and Snell’s law.
Jan 31, 2022

 Thin Double Convex Lens Optical Equations Derivation formulas for lens essentially traces an arbitrary ray geometrically and mathematically from an object point through the two surfaces of a thin lens to the corresponding image point.
Jan 31, 2022
 Refraction for Water at Various Temperatures Table of index of refraction of liquid water at atmospheric pressure, relative to a vacuum, at several temperatures and wavelengths. It is generated from the formulation in Reference 1, which covers a wide range of temperature, pressure, and wavelength.
Jan 30, 2022
 Mean Free Path of Gases Formulae and Calculator The kinetic theory of gases states that molecules can be viewed as spheres which by the energy contained create collisions between them. The approximate mean distance traveled by a molecule between collisions is defined as the mean free path l and is related to the molecule diameter.
Jan 29, 2022
 Van der Waals Constants for Gases Van der Waals, constant a is due to force of attraction and b due to the infinite size molecules. The greater the value q and smaller the value b, larger the liquefaction.
Jan 28, 2022
 Boiling Point of Water at Various Pressures Data are based on the equation of state recommended by the International Association for the Properties of Steam
Jan 28, 2022
 Vapor Pressure of Ice Table The values of the vapor (sublimation) pressure of ice in this table were calculated from the equation recommended by the International Association for the Properties of Steam (IAPS) in 1993. Temperature values correspond to the ITS-90 temperature scale.
Jan 28, 2022
 Density of Various Solids Tables These tables gives the range of density for miscellaneous solid materials whose characteristics depend on the source or method of preparation
Jan 28, 2022
 Simple harmonic force rotary unbalance Forced damped vibration - A simple harmonic force applied to mass due to rotary unbalance vibration Equations
Jan 27, 2022
 Harmonic Force Constant Amplitude Applied To Base Vibration Equations Forced damped vibration - A simple harmonic force of constant amplitude applied to base vibration Equations
Jan 25, 2022
 Harmonic Force of Constant Amplitude Applied to Mass in Vibration Equations Forced damped vibration - A simple harmonic force of constant amplitude applied to mass in vibration Equations.
Jan 25, 2022