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Motor Car Engineering Volume II Design
Motor Car Engineering, Text Book
Volume II Design
A. Graham Clark
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Open: Motor Car Engineering, Text Book Volume I Construction
This book is the second volume of a text book on Motor Gar Engineering, and deals with the design of the petrol engine and chassis. Yet, notwithstanding the fact' that the two volumes must of necessity be complementary, an endeavor has been made throughout the work to render it complete in itself, although needless repetition has been avoided. It is anticipated, however, that before students take up the study of design they will have become well acquainted with the constructions commonly employed. The Author has included a few of the illustrations which appeared in the first volume. The subject-matter of this volume has been written from the notes used by the Author in his lecture to students on Motor Gar Design, and is intended for the use of engineers, designers, draughtsmen, students and others whose work entails a knowledge of design. The treatment of the subject is from first principles, for two reasons: firstly, because it enables a student to grasp the essentials and the mode of application with less difficulty, and secondly, because empirical formulas, always dangerous, are especially so in automobile design, where the conditions under which they are used may vary so greatly from those under which they have originated. Many worked examples have been given, which should be read carefully by the reader.
The Author must again express his indebtedness to his friend and colleague Mr. T. Wadhams, Wh. Ex., who has kindly checked many of the calculations and read through the proofs, and to the Institution of Civil Engineers, and the various firms who have loaned him blocks for a number of the illustrations.
Introduction 1 — 10
General Benchmarks on Design — procedure in Design — Bases of Design —Considerations in Design— Standardization— Empirical Formulae— Metric and English Units
Materials of Construction 11—54
Definitions — Resilience — Forms of Loading — Tension — Compression — Shear — Bending — Bending Moment — Shearing Force — Torsion — Factors of Safety — Fluctuating and Alternating Stresses— Impact Tests — Hardness Tests — ^Iron Ores — Cast Iron — Malleable Cast Iron — ^Wrought Iron — Steel — Alloy Steels — Annealing — Case-hardening — Bronzes — Aluminium and its Alloys — Bearing Metals.
General Considerations in Engine Design .... 65 — 76
Cooling — Lubrication — Number of Cylinders and Method of Casting — Piston Speed — ^Revolutions and Stroke — Compression Pressure — Type of Ignition — Type of Engine — Arrangement.
Power Requirements 77— 9ft
Nature of the Resistance to be Overcome— Accelerometers — Road Resistance — Gradient Resistance — Air Resistance — The Efficiency of the Transmission — The Estimation of Power.
Determination of Engine Dimensions 100 — 112
Brake Horse-power in Terms of Engine Dimensions— Mechanical Efficiency of the Engine — Mean Effective Pressure in the Cylinder— Piston Speed— Compression Ratio — Cylinder Dimensions for a stated Horse -power.
Cylinders and Valves 113—133
Material — Construction — Thicknesses of Cylinder Head, Walls, etc. — "Water Jackets — Inlet and Exhaust Ports and Valves — Cylinder Studs and Bolts.
Valve Gears • . 134 — 158
Importance of, and desirable features in, a Good Valve Gear
Valve Timing — Valve Tappets— Cams — Design of Cam — Uniform
Acceleration — Simple Harmonic Motion — Valve Springs — Valve
Gear Arrangement — Camshaft — Sleeve, Piston and Rotary
Pistons, Gudgeons and Connecting Rods .... 159 — 171
Materials for Piston — Piston Construction— Number and Dimensions of Rings — Piston Thicknesses— Gudgeon Pin — Connecting Rods — Loads on the Rod — The Design of the Rod.
Crankshafts and Fly-wheels 172—198
Material for Crankshaft —Arrangement — General Design of Crankshaft — Formulae used for Shafts Subject to Combined Stress — The Design of Crankshaft — Crankpin — Crankwebs — Crank- journals — Couplings — Torsional Rigidity — Flywheels — Determination of Size of Flywheel.
The Balancing of Engines 199—220
Importance of a Good Balance — Balance of Single Rotating Mass by a Single Mass — Balance of Two or more Co-planar Rotating Classes — Reference Plane— Balance of Single Mass by two Separate Masses — Balance of a Number of Rotating Masses which are not Co-planar— Primary Balancing— Primary Balance of Single Cylinder Engine — Primary Balance of an Engine with more than One Cylinder — The Reciprocating and Rotating Part— Secondary Balancing — The Balance of a Six-Cylinder Engine.
•Crankcases and Gearboxes 221 — 230
Materials— Crankcase Construction — Gearbox Construction — General Note — Engine and Gearbox Suspensions.
Engine Lubricating and Cooling Arrangements, Inlet, Exhaust AND Fuel Piping, etc 231 — 247
Lubricating Arrangements — Details of Oil System — Oil Pumps— General Benchmarks— Engine Cooling — Air Cooling — Water Cooling — ^Water Pumps — Radiators— Inlet and Exhaust Piping— Fuel System.
Clutches and Brakes 248 — 269
The Design of a Clutch — Cone Clutches— Multiple Disc Clutches — Plate Clutches — Clutch Springs, Levers, etc. — Brakes — Operating (rear — Design of Brakes— Propeller Shaft Brakes— Boad Wheel Brakes — Brake Cams— Springs, Levers, etc.
Types of Gears — Shapes of Teeth —Definitions — Cycloidal Teeth— Involute Teeth — Methods of Measuring Pitch — Minimum Number of Teeth — Proportions of Teeth — Design of Spur and Bevel Gears — Helical Gearing — Worm Gearing- -Definitions — Design of Worm Gear — Chain Drives — Points in Design of Chain Drives.
Transmission Gear 297—327
Load on Transmission Gear — Universal Joints — Design of Universal Joints — Change Speed Gears — Arrangement and Details of Gearbox — ^Number of Speeds and which Direct — Gear Ratios — Gear Shafts — Propeller Shafts — Bevel and Worm Drives — Loads on Bearings— Differential — Live Axle Shafts — Axle Casings — Loads on Axle Casing — Cones, Keys and Feathers.
Frames, Axles and Springs— Torque and Radius Rods . 328 — 350
Frame Construction— Wheel Base and Track — Classification of Load— Materials Employed — Frame Design — Helical Springs — Plate Springs— Fixed Axles — Stub Axles — Torque Rods — Radius Rods.
Steering Gears 357 — 368
Geometrical Properties — Angles of Lock — Setting out Steering Gear for Internal and External Systems— Steering Levers, Rods, etc. — Steering Columns.
Motor Car Engineering, Text Book
Volume I Construction
A. Graham Clark