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Specific Gravity Table Chart and Equation

Specific Gravity Table Chart and Equation

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Specific gravity (S.G.) is a measure of the relative density of a substance as compared to the density of water at a standard temperature. Physicists use 39.2F (4C) as the standard, but engineers ordinarily use 60F. In the International System of Units (SI Units), the density of water is 1.00 g/cm3 at the standard temperature. Therefore, the specific gravity (which is dimensionless) for a liquid has the same numerical value as its density in units of g/cm3. Since the density of a fluid varies with temperature, specific gravities must be determined and specified at particular temperatures.

Sg = ps/ph20

Sg = Specific Gravity of the substance
ps = density of the fluid or substance (kg/m3)
ph20 = density of water, standarized at temperature 4°C (kg/m3)

  • Helium gas has a density of 0.164g/liter It is 0.139 times as dense as air .
  • Air has a density of 1.18g/l
Specific Gravity Table Chart
Material Specific Gravity
Acetylene 0.0017
Air, dry 0.0013
Alcohol 0.82
Aluminium 2.7
Aluminum Alloy 356.0 2.68
Aluminum Alloy 360.0 2.68
Aluminum Alloy 364.0 2.63
Ammonia Vapor 0.60
Balsa wood 0.2
Brass 8.48
Cadmium 8.58
Carbon dioxide 0.00198
Carbon monoxide 0.00126
Cast iron 7.20
Chromium 7.03
Copper 8.96
Depleted uranium 19.1
Epoxy 1.8 - 2.0
Ethanol 0.78
Gold 19.3
Hydrogen 0.00009
Iron 7.87
Lead 11.35
Melamine 1.8 - 2.0
Mercury 13.56
Natural Gas 0.59
Nickel 8.72
Nitrogen 0.00125
Nylon 1.12
Oak wood 0.75
Osmium 22.59
Oxygen 0.00143
Methanol Vapor 1.11
Nitrogen Gas 0.07
Paraffin 0.80
Petrol (gasoline) 0.72
Phenolic 1.75 - 1.95
Polyester 1.35 - 2.3
Polyurethane 1.11 - 1.25
Propane Gas 1.55
PVC Pipe 1.36
Rubber 0.96
Steel 7.82
Table salt 2.17
Tin 7.28
Water 1
Water, sea salt 1.02
Zinc 7.12

(Samples may vary, and these figures are approximate.)

  • Urine normally has a specific gravity between 1.003 and 1.035.
  • Blood normally has a specific gravity of ~1.060.

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