Thermodynamic Properties Common Liquids , Solids, and Foods

Thermodynamics Related Resources

Thermodynamic properties of common liquids, solids, and foods
Solids (values are for room temperature unless indicated otherwise)

Substance
Density,
ρ
kg/m3
Specific heat,
cp

kJ/kg · K
Substance
Density,
ρ
kg/m3
Specific heat,
cp
kJ/kg · K
Metals
-
-
Nonmetals
-
-
Aluminum
-
-
Asphalt
2110
0.920
200 K
-
0.797
Brick, common
1922
0.79
250 K
-
0.859
Brick, fireclay (500°C)
2300
0.960
300 K
2,700
0.902
Concrete
2300
0.653
350 K
-
0.929
Clay
1000
0.920
400 K
-
0.949
Diamond
2420
0.616
450 K
-
0.973
Glass, window
2700
0.800
500 K
-
0.997
Glass, pyrex
2230
0.840
Bronze (76% Cu, 2% Zn,
8,280
0.400
Graphite
2500
0.711
2% Al)
-
-
Granite
2700
1.017
Brass, yellow (65% Cu,
8,310
0.400
Gypsum or plaster board
800
1.09
35% Zn)
-
-
Ice
-
-
Copper
-
-
200 K
-
1.56
173°C
-
0.254
220 K
-
1.71
100°C
-
0.342
240 K
-
1.86
50°C
-
0.367
260 K
-
2.01
0°C
-
0.381
273 K
921
2.11
27°C
8,900
0.386
Limestone
1650
0.909
100°C
-
0.393
Marble
2600
0.880
200°C
-
0.403
Plywood (Douglas Fir)
545
1.21
Iron
7,840
0.45
Rubber (soft)
1100
1.840
Lead
11,310
0.128
Rubber (hard)
1150
2.009
Magnesium
1,730
1.000
Sand
1520
0.800
Nickel
8,890
0.440
Stone
1500
0.800
Silver
10,470
0.235
Woods, hard (maple, oak, etc.)
721
1.26
Steel, mild
7,830
0.500
Woods, soft (fir, pine, etc.)
513
1.38
Tungsten
19,400
0.130

Foods

Food
Water
content,
%
(mass)
Freezing
point,
°C
Specific heat,
kJ/kg · K
Latent
heat of
fusion,
kJ/kg
Food
Water
content,
%
(mass)
Freezing
point,
°C
Specific heat,
kJ/kg · K
Latent
heat of
fusion,
kJ/kg
Above
freezing
Below
freezing
Above
freezing
Below
freezing
Apples
84
1.1
3.65
1.90
281
Lettuce
95
0.2
4.02
2.04
317
Bananas
75
0.8
3.35
1.78
251
Milk,
whole
88
0.6
3.79
1.95
294
Beef round
67
3.08
1.68
224
Oranges
87
0.8
3.75
1.94
291
Broccoli
90
0.6
3.86
1.97
301
Potatoes
78
0.6
3.45
1.82
261
Butter
16
1.04
53
Salmon
fish
64
2.2
2.98
1.65
214
Cheese,
swiss
39
10.0
2.15
1.33
130
Shrimp
83
2.2
3.62
1.89
277
Cherries
80
1.8
3.52
1.85
267
Spinach
93
0.3
3.96
2.01
311
Chicken
74
2.8
3.32
1.77
247
Strawberries
90
0.8
3.86
1.97
301
Corn,
sweet
74
0.6
3.32
1.77
247
Tomatoes,
ripe
94
0.5
3.99
2.02
314
Eggs,
whole
74
0.6
3.32
1.77
247
Turkey
64
2.98
1.65
214
Ice
cream
63
5.6
2.95
1.63
210
Watermelon
93
0.4
3.96
2.01
311

Source: Values are obtained from various handbooks and other sources or are calculated. Water content and freezing-point data of foods are from ASHRAE, Handbook of Fundamentals, SI version (Atlanta, GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1993), Chapter 30, Table 1. Freezing point is the temperature at which freezing starts for fruits and vegetables, and the average freezing temperature for other foods.

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