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Stress in Sphere and Hemispherical Head Seam Equation and Calculator

Structural Design and Analysis
Pressure Vessel Design and Engineering

Stress in Sphere and Hemispherical Head Seam Equation and Calculator

The stress in the girth seam will govern only when the circumferential join efficiency is less than one - half the longitudinal joint efficiency, or when the internal pressure additional loadings (wind load, reaction of saddles) are causing longitudinal bending or tension . The reason for it is that the stress arising in the girth seam pound per square inch is one - half of the stress in the longitudinal seam.

Stress in Cylindrical Shell Long Seam Equation and Calculator

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Stress in Sphere and Hemispherical Head Seam Calculator:

Required minimum wall thickness

t = [ P (R + CA) ] / ( 2SE - 0.2P) + CA

Maximum allowable working pressure
P = 2SEta / (R + 0.2ta)


P = Design pressure or max. allowable working pressure, psi
S = Rated stress value of the material
E = Weld Joint efficiency
R = Inside radius, inches
D = Inside diameter of vessel , inches
t = Thickness of shell (wall), inches
ta = Wall thickness used in actual design, inches
CA = Corrosion allowance, inches

  1. For heads without a straight flange, use the efficiency of the head to shell joint if it is less than the efficiency of the seams in the head.



P = 100 psi design pressure
S = 17,500 psi stress value of SA 515-70 plate @ 650°F
E = 0.85, efficiency of spot-examined joints of shell.
D = 96 inches
R = 48 inches
CA = 0.125 in

Shell thickness requirements:

t = ( 100 psi x 48.125 in.) / ( 2 x 17,500 psi x 0.85 - 0.2 x 100 psi) + 0.125 in.
t = 0.287 in.

Probably use 0.3125 in. plate for design = ta

Maximum working pressure

ta = ( 2 x 17,500 psi x 0.85 x 0.3125 in) / ( ( 48 in+ 0.2 x 0.3125 in)
ta = 193 psi