Heat Pipe Design Handbook

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Open Heat Pipe Design Handbook

This Handbook was prepared under NASA Contract NAS5-23406, "Updating of a Heat Pipe Design and Applications Handbook." The work was administered by the Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland, and Mr. Roy Mclntosh was the NASA Technical Monitor.

CHAPTER 1:
INTRODUCTION
1.1 HISTORY
1.2 PRINCIPLESOF OPERATION
1.3 .TYPES OF HEAT PIPES
1.4 HEAT PIPE OPERATING TEMPERATURE RANGES
1.5 ARRANGEMENOTF THE MANUAL

Chapter 2
FIXED CONDUCTANCE HEAT PIPE THEORY  
HEATPIPE OPERATION
FUNDAMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS
CAPILLARY PRESSURE
PRESSURE GRADIENTS IN THE LIQUID 
2.4.1 Viscous Pressure Gradients in the Liquid 
2.4.2 Body Forces in the Liquid 
PRESSUREGRADIENTSIN THE VAPOR
Viscous Pressure Gradients in the Vapor
Dynamic Pressure Gradients in the Vapor
Turbulent Flow and Compressibility Effects
2.5.4 Body Forces in the Vapo

CAPILLARY HEAT TRANSPORT LIMIT 
2.6.1 General Approach
2.6.2 Heat Transport Requirement and Heat Transport Capability
2.6.3 Closed Form Solution 

OTHER HEAT TRANSPORT LIMITATIONS 
2.7.1 Sonic Limit 
2.7.2 Entrainment Limit
2.7.3 Heat Flux Limit

CHAPTER 3:

VARIABLE CONDUCTANCE HEAT PIPE THEORY  
TECHNIQUES FOR VARYING HEAT PIPE CONDUCTANCE
VARIABLE CONDUCTANCE WITH GAS-LOADED HEAT PIPES
Fiat Front Theory
Types of Gas-Loaded Heat Pipes
Oiffuslon Effectsg
Gas Absorption Reservoir
Transients wtth Gas-Controlled Heat Pipes

OTHER VARIABLE CONDUCTANCE HEAT PIPES
3.3.1 Excess Liquid Heat Pipe
3.3.2 Liquid Flow Control
3.3.3 Vapor Flow Control 

HEAT PIPE DESIGN
DESIGN PROCEDURE 
PROBLEM DEFINITION AND DESIGN CRITERIA
4.2.1 Operating and Non-Operating Thermal Environment
4.2.2 Thermal Load
4.2.3 Transport Length
4.2.4 Temperature Unlformity and Overall Temperature Drop
4.2.5 Physical Requirements 
4.2.5 Acceptance and Quali?fcation Testing
4.2.7 Dynamic Environment
4 2 8 Man Rating
4.2.9 Thermal/Mechanical Interface
4.2.10 Transient Behavior
4.2.11 Rellabllfty
4.2.12 Temperature Control Sensitivity

WORKING FLUID SELECTION
4.3.1 Operating Temperature Range
4.3.2 Liquid Transport Factor
4.3.3 Liquid Wlcking Capability in a Body Force Field
4.3.4 Kinematic Viscosity Ratio
4.3.5 Pressure Containment 
4.3.6 Heat Transfer
4.3.7 Fluid Compatibility
4.4 WICK DESIGN 
4.4.1 Basic Properties 
4 4 2 Typical Wick Designs 
4.4.3 Methods for Priming Composite Wicks
4.4.4 Tytical Secondary Hick Designs
4.4.5 Thermal Conductance
4.4.6 Wick Fabrication
4.5 CONTAINER DESIGN
4.5.1 Material Selection
4.5.2 Structural Considerations
4,5.3 Interface Design 
4.6 FIXED CONDUCTANCE HEAT PIPE DESIGN PROCEDURE


CHAPTER 5:
SAMPLE DESIGN PROBLEMS

5.1 SAMPLE PROBLEM A - FIXED CONDUCTANCE HEAT PIPE

5.2 SAHPLEPROBLEMB -- VARIABLECONDUCTANCE HEATPIPE
5.2.1 Step #l - Problem Definition and Design Criteria
5.2.2 Step #2 - Fixed Conductance Heat Pipe Design Summary
5.2.3 Step #3 - Reverse Conductance 
5.2.4 Step #4 - Reservoir Sizing; Maximum Sink = -30°C  
5.2.5 Step #5 - Reservoir Sizing; Maximum Sink = -IO°C 
5.3 SNIPLE PROBLEM C -- GRAVITY ASSIST HEAT PIPE
5.3.1 Step #I - Prob]em Definition and DesignCrlteria
5.3.2 Step #2 - Heat Pipe Design Summary
5.3.3 Step #3 - Evaluated Hydrodynamic Performance Limits
5.3.4 Step #4 - Other Heat Transport Limitations 

CHAPTER 6:

HEATPIPE MANUFACTURING.
6• 1 HEAT PIPE CONSTRUCTION
6.Z MANUFACTURING FLOW PLAN 
6.2.1 Cryogenic Heat Pipes 
6.2.2 Liquid Metal Heat Pipes 
6.2.3 Thermal Control Heat Pipes 
6.3 COMPONENT FABRICATION AND PROCESSING 
6.3.1 Envelope Preparation
6.3.2 Wick Preparation
6.3.3 End Closures
6.3.4 Working Fluid
6.4 HEAT PIPE PROCESSING AND FABRICATION
6.4.1 Cleaning
6.4.2 Heat Pipe Assembly and Closure
6.4.3 Evacuation and Charging
6.4.4 Charge Tube Pinch-Off
References

CHAPTER 7:
MATERIALS COMPATIBILITY
7.1 LOW TEMPERATURE CORROSION 
7 2 HIGH TEMPERATURE CORROSION
7.2.1 Oxygen Corrosion
7.2.2 Simple Solution Corrosion
7.3 EXPERIMENT RESULTS


CHAPTER 8: 
HEATPIPE TESTING 
8.1 HEATPIPE COMPONENT TESTS
8.l.l Fluid Properties Tests
8.2 WICK PROPERTYTESTS
8.2.1 Effective Pumping Radius
8.2.2 Permeability
8.2.3 Composite Wick Effective Capillary Pumping 
8.3 CONTAINERDESIGN VERIFICATION TESTS  
8.3.l Hydrostatic Pressure Testing 
8 3 2 Leak Testing 
8.4 THERMAL PERFORMANCE TESTS
8.4.1 Test Procedure and Data Reduction
8.4.2 Test Apparatus
8.5 THERMAL CONTROL TESTS

CHAPTER 9: 
9.1 AEROSPACE
9.2 TERRESTRIAL
9.2.] Permafrost Stabilization
9.2.2 Deicing Systems 
9.2.3 Heat Recovery 
9.2.4 Tectronic and Electrical Equipment
9.2.5 Solar Collectors
9.3 SPECIAL TYPES OF HEAT PIPES
9.3.1 Flat Plate Heat Pipe
9.3.2 Flexible Heat Pipe
9.3.3 ElectrohydrodynamicHeat Pipe
9.3.4 Osmotic Heat Pipe
9.3.5 Rotating Heat Pipe

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