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Aviation Maintenance Technician Handbook–Airframe (FAA-H-8083-31A) Volume 2
US Depatment of Transportation
Federal Aviation Administration
2018
564 pages

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Aviation Maintenance Technician Handbook–Powerplant (FAA-H-8083-32A) Volume 2

Since the beginning of manned flight, it has been recognized that supplying the pilot with information about the aircraft and its operation could be useful and lead to safer flight. The Wright Brothers had very few instruments on their Wright Flyer, but they did have an engine tachometer, an anemometer (wind meter), and a stop watch. They were obviously concerned about the aircraft’s engine and the progress of their flight. From that simple beginning, a wide variety of instruments have been developed to inform flight crews of different parameters. Instrument systems now exist to provide information on the condition of the aircraft, engine, components, the aircraft’s attitude in the sky, weather, cabin environment, navigation, and communication. Figure 10-1 shows various instrument panels from the Wright Flyer to a modern jet airliner.

TOC

Volume Contents. ...................................................V
Preface..................................................................VII
Acknowledgments. ................................................IX
Table of Contents. ................................................XV

Chapter 10
Aircraft Instrument Systems. ............................10-1
Introduction. ..................................................................10-1
Classifying Instruments. ...............................................10-3
Flight Instruments. ....................................................10-3
Engine Instruments. ...................................................10-3
Navigation Instruments. ............................................10-4
Pressure Measuring Instruments. ..................................10-5
Types of Pressure. .....................................................10-7
Pressure Instruments.................................................10-8
Engine Oil Pressure. ..............................................10-8
Manifold Pressure. .................................................10-9
Engine Pressure Ratio (EPR). ................................10-9
Fuel Pressure. .......................................................10-10
Hydraulic Pressure. ..............................................10-11
Vacuum Pressure. ................................................10-11
Pressure Switches. ...............................................10-11
Pitot-Static Systems. ................................................10-12
Pitot Tubes and Static Vents. ...............................10-13
Air Data Computers (ADC) and Digital Air Data Computers (DADC). ...................................10-16
Pitot-Static Pressure-Sensing Flight Instruments. ...10-16
Altimeters and Altitude. .......................................10-16
Vertical Speed Indicator. .....................................10-22
Airspeed Indicators. .............................................10-24
Remote Sensing and Indication. .................................10-26
Synchro-Type Remote-Indicating Instruments. ......10-26
DC Selsyn Systems. .............................................10-27
AC Synchro Systems. ..........................................10-28
Remote Indicating Fuel and Oil Pressure Gauges. ................................................................10-29
Mechanical Movement Indicators. ..............................10-29
Tachometers. ...........................................................10-30
Mechanical Tachometers. ....................................10-30
Electric Tachometers. ..........................................10-30
Accelerometers. .......................................................10-33
Stall Warning and Angle of Attack (AOA) Indicators. ................................................................10-33
Temperature Measuring Instruments. .........................10-36
Non-Electric Temperature Indicators. .....................10-36
Electrical Temperature Measuring Indication. ........10-37
Electrical Resistance Thermometer. ....................10-37
Ratiometer Electrical Resistance Thermometers. .....................................................10-38
Thermocouple Temperature Indicators. ..................10-39
Turbine Gas Temperature Indicating Systems. ...10-40
Total Air Temperature Measurement. .....................10-42
Direction Indicating Instruments. ...............................10-43
Magnetic Compass. .................................................10-43
Vertical Magnetic Compass. ...................................10-45
Remote Indicating Compass. ...................................10-46
Remote Indicating Slaved Gyro Compass (Flux Gate Compass). ..............................................10-46
Solid State Magnetometers. .....................................10-47
Sources of Power for Gyroscopic Instruments. ..........10-47
Vacuum Systems. ....................................................10-48
Venturi Tube Systems. .........................................10-48
Engine-Driven Vacuum Pump. ............................10-49
Typical Pump-Driven System. .............................10-50
Twin-Engine Aircraft Vacuum System Operation. ............................................................10-51
Pressure-Driven Gyroscopic Instrument Systems. ..10-52
Electrically-Driven Gyroscopic Instrument Systems. ...................................................................10-52
Principles of Gyroscopic Instruments. ........................10-53
Mechanical Gyros...................................................10-53
Solid State Gyros and Related Systems. .................10-54
Ring Laser Gyros (RLG). ....................................10-55
Microelectromechanical Based Attitude and Directional Systems. ............................................10-56
Other Attitude and Directional Systems. .............10-56
Common Gyroscopic Instruments. .............................10-56
Vacuum-Driven Attitude Gyros. .............................10-56
Electric Attitude Indicators. ....................................10-58
Gyroscopic Direction Indicator or Directional Gyro (DG). ..............................................................10-58
Turn Coordinators. ..................................................10-59
Turn-and-Slip Indicator. ..........................................10-59
Autopilot Systems. ......................................................10-61
Basis for Autopilot Operation. ................................10-61
Autopilot Components. ...............................................10-62
Sensing Elements. ...................................................10-62
Computer and Amplifier. ........................................10-62
Output Elements. .....................................................10-63
Command Elements. ...............................................10-64
Feedback or Follow-up Element. ............................10-64
Autopilot Functions. ................................................10-65
Yaw Dampening. .....................................................10-66
Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS). ................10-66
Flight Director Systems. .............................................10-66
Electronic Instruments. ...............................................10-68
Electronic Attitude Director Indicator (EADI). ......10-68
Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicators (EHSI). ....................................................................10-69
Electronic Flight Information Systems. ......................10-69
Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS). ..........10-70
Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitor (ECAM). ..............................................................10-71
Engine Indicating and Crew Alerting System (EICAS). ..................................................................10-72
Flight Management System (FMS). ............................10-74
Warnings and Cautions. ..............................................10-75
Annunciator Systems. ..............................................10-75
Aural Warning Systems..........................................10-77
Clocks. ........................................................................10-77
Instrument Housings and Handling. ...........................10-78
Instrument Installations and Markings. .......................10-80
Instrument Panels. ...................................................10-80
Instrument Mounting. ..............................................10-81
Instrument Power Requirements. ............................10-82
Instrument Range Markings. ...................................10-82
Maintenance of Instruments and Instrument Systems. ......................................................................10-83
Altimeter Tests. .......................................................10-83
Pitot-Static System Maintenance and Tests. ...........10-84
Tachometer Maintenance. .......................................10-85
Magnetic Compass Maintenance and Compensation. .........................................................10-85
Vacuum System Maintenance. ................................10-86
Autopilot System Maintenance. ..............................10-86
LCD Display Screens. .............................................10-87

Chapter 11
Communication and Navigation. .......................11-1
Introduction. ..................................................................11-1
Avionics in Aviation Maintenance. ...........................11-2
History of Avionics. ..................................................11-2
Fundamentals of Electronics. ........................................11-3
Analog Versus Digital Electronics. ...........................11-3
Noise. .....................................................................11-4
Analog Electronics. ...................................................11-4
Electron Control Valves. .......................................11-4
Basic Analog Circuits. .........................................11-19
Digital Electronics. ..............................................11-26
Radio Communication. ...............................................11-30
Radio Waves...........................................................11-31
Types of Radio Waves. ........................................11-32
Loading Information onto a Radio Wave. ...............11-34
Amplitude Modulation (AM). .............................11-35
Frequency Modulation (FM). ..............................11-36
Single Side Band (SSB). ......................................11-36
Radio Transmitters and Receivers. ..........................11-37
Transmitters. ........................................................11-37
Receivers. .............................................................11-37
Transceivers. ........................................................11-38
Antennas. .................................................................11-38
Length. .................................................................11-38
Polarization, Directivity, and Field Pattern. ........11-39
Types. ...................................................................11-40
Transmission Lines. .............................................11-42
Radio Navigation. .......................................................11-42
VOR Navigation System. ........................................11-43
Automatic Direction Finder (ADF). ........................11-46
Radio Magnetic Indicator (RMI). ............................11-49
Instrument Landing Systems (ILS). ........................11-49
Localizer. .............................................................11-49
Glideslope. ...........................................................11-50
Compass Locators. ...............................................11-51
Marker Beacons. ..................................................11-52
Distance Measuring Equipment (DME). .................11-52
Area Navigation (RNAV). ......................................11-54
Radar Beacon Transponder. ....................................11-54
Transponder Tests and Inspections. .....................11-56
Altitude Encoders. ...............................................11-58
Collision Avoidance Systems. .................................11-58
Traffic Collision Avoidance Systems (TCAS). ...11-58
ADS-B. ................................................................11-60
Radio Altimeter. ......................................................11-62
Weather Radar. ........................................................11-62
Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT). ..................11-65
Long Range Aid to Navigation System (LORAN). ...............................................................11-67
Global Positioning System (GPS). ..........................11-69
Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS). .......11-70
Inertial Navigation System (INS)/Inertial Reference System (IRS). .............................................11-71
Installation of Communication and Navigation Equipment. ..................................................................11-72
Approval of New Avionics Equipment Installations. ............................................................11-72
Considerations. ........................................................11-72
Cooling and Moisture. .............................................11-73
Vibration Isolation. ..................................................11-73
Reducing Radio Interference. .....................................11-74
Shielding. .................................................................11-74
Isolation. ..................................................................11-74
Bonding. ..................................................................11-74
Static Discharge Wicks. ..........................................11-74
Installation of Aircraft Antenna Systems. ...................11-75
Transmission Lines. ................................................11-76
Maintenance Procedure. ..........................................11-76

Chapter 12
Hydraulic and Pneumatic Power Systems. ......12-1
Aircraft Hydraulic Systems. ..........................................12-1
Hydraulic Fluid. ............................................................12-2
Viscosity. ...................................................................12-2
Chemical Stability. ....................................................12-2
Flash Point. ................................................................12-3
Fire Point. ..................................................................12-3
Types of Hydraulic Fluids. ...........................................12-3
Mineral-Based Fluids. ...............................................12-3
Polyalphaolefin-Based Fluids...................................12-3
Phosphate Ester-Based Fluid. ....................................12-3
Intermixing of Fluids. ................................................12-3
Compatibility with Aircraft Materials. ......................12-4
Hydraulic Fluid Contamination. ................................12-4
Contamination Check. ...........................................12-4
Contamination Control. .........................................12-5
Hydraulic System Flushing. ......................................12-5
Health and Handling. .................................................12-6
Basic Hydraulic Systems. .............................................12-6
Open Center Hydraulic Systems. ..............................12-6
Closed-Center Hydraulic Systems............................12-7
Hydraulic Power Systems. ............................................12-7
Evolution of Hydraulic Systems...............................12-7
Hydraulic Power Pack System. .................................12-7
Hydraulic System Components. ................................12-8
Reservoirs. .............................................................12-8
Filters. ......................................................................12-13
Micron-Type Filters. ............................................12-14
Maintenance of Filters. ........................................12-14
Filter Bypass Valve . ............................................12-14
Filter Differential Pressure Indicators. ................12-14
Pumps. .....................................................................12-15
Hand Pumps. ...........................................................12-15
Power-Driven Pumps. .............................................12-16
Classification of Pumps. ......................................12-16
Constant-Displacement Pumps. ...........................12-17
Gear-Type Power Pump. .....................................12-17
Gerotor Pump. ......................................................12-17
Piston Pump. ........................................................12-17
Vane Pump. ..........................................................12-20
Variable-Displacement Pump. .............................12-20
Valves. .....................................................................12-22
Flow Control Valves. ...........................................12-22
Pressure Control Valves. .....................................12-27
Shuttle Valves. .....................................................12-30
Accumulators..........................................................12-31
Types of Accumulators. .......................................12-31
Heat Exchangers. .....................................................12-32
Actuators. ................................................................12-33
Linear Actuators. .................................................12-33
Rotary Actuators. .................................................12-34
Hydraulic Motor. .................................................12-34
Ram Air Turbine (RAT). .........................................12-34
Power Transfer Unit (PTU). ....................................12-35
Hydraulic Motor-Driven Generator (HMDG). ........12-35
Seals. .......................................................................12-35
V-Ring Packings. .................................................12-36
U-Ring. ................................................................12-36
O-Rings. ...............................................................12-36
Backup Rings. ......................................................12-37
Gaskets. ................................................................12-37
Seal Materials. .....................................................12-38
O-Ring Installation. .............................................12-38
Wipers. .................................................................12-38
Large Aircraft Hydraulic Systems. .............................12-38
Boeing 737 Next Generation Hydraulic System. ....12-38
Reservoirs. ...........................................................12-38
Pumps. .................................................................12-40
Filter Units. ..........................................................12-40
Power Transfer Unit (PTU). ................................12-40
Landing Gear Transfer Unit. ................................12-42
Standby Hydraulic System. .................................12-42
Indications. ...........................................................12-42
Boeing 777 Hydraulic System. ................................12-42
Left and Right System Description. .....................12-43
Center Hydraulic System. ....................................12-45
Aircraft Pneumatic Systems. .......................................12-47
High-Pressure Systems. ...........................................12-48
Pneumatic System Components. .........................12-48
Emergency Backup Systems. ...............................12-51
Medium-Pressure Systems. .....................................12-52
Low-Pressure Systems. ...........................................12-52
Pneumatic Power System Maintenance. .................12-52

Chapter 13
Aircraft Landing Gear Systems. ........................13-1
Landing Gear Types. .....................................................13-1
Landing Gear Arrangement. ......................................13-2
Tail Wheel-Type Landing Gear. ............................13-3
Tandem Landing Gear. ..........................................13-3
Tricycle-Type Landing Gear. ................................13-3
Fixed and Retractable Landing Gear. ........................13-5
Shock Absorbing and Non-Shock Absorbing Landing Gear. ............................................................13-6
Leaf-Type Spring Gear. .........................................13-6
Rigid. .....................................................................13-7
Bungee Cord. .........................................................13-7
Shock Struts. ..........................................................13-8
Shock Strut Operation. ............................................13-12
Servicing Shock Struts. ...........................................13-12
Bleeding Shock Struts. ............................................13-13
Landing Gear Alignment, Support, and Retraction. ...13-15
Alignment. ...............................................................13-15
Support. ...................................................................13-16
Small Aircraft Retraction Systems. .........................13-18
Large Aircraft Retraction Systems. .........................13-20
Emergency Extension Systems. ..............................13-22
Landing Gear Safety Devices. .................................13-22
Safety Switch. ......................................................13-23
Ground Locks. .....................................................13-23
Landing Gear Position Indicators. .......................13-24
Nose Wheel Centering. ........................................13-24
Landing Gear System Maintenance. ...........................13-25
Landing Gear Rigging and Adjustment..................13-26
Adjusting Landing Gear Latches . .......................13-27
Gear Door Clearances. .........................................13-27
Drag and Side Brace Adjustment ......................13-28
Landing Gear Retraction Test ............................13-29
Nose Wheel Steering Systems. ...................................13-30
Small Aircraft ........................................................13-30
Large Aircraft. .........................................................13-30
Shimmy Dampers. ...................................................13-32
Steering Damper. .................................................13-33
Piston-Type. .........................................................13-33
Vane-Type. ..........................................................13-33
Non-Hydraulic Shimmy Damper. ........................13-34
Aircraft Wheels. ..........................................................13-34
Wheel Construction. ................................................13-35
Inboard Wheel Half. ............................................13-36
Outboard Wheel Half. ..........................................13-36
Wheel Inspection. ....................................................13-37
On Aircraft Inspection. ........................................13-37
Proper Installation. ...............................................13-37
Off Aircraft Wheel Inspection. ............................13-37
Aircraft Brakes. ...........................................................13-42
Types and Construction of Aircraft Brakes. ............13-43
Single Disc Brakes. ..............................................13-43
Dual-Disc Brakes. ................................................13-46
Multiple-Disc Brakes. ..........................................13-46
Segmented Rotor-Disc Brakes. ............................13-47
Carbon Brakes. ....................................................13-51
Expander Tube Brakes. ........................................13-51
Brake Actuating Systems. .......................................13-52
Independent Master Cylinders. ............................13-52
Boosted Brakes. ...................................................13-54
Power Brakes. ......................................................13-55
Emergency Brake Systems. .....................................13-56
Parking Brake. .....................................................13-58
Brake Deboosters. ................................................13-58
Anti-Skid. ................................................................13-61
System Operation. ................................................13-61
Wheel Speed Sensors. ..........................................13-62
Control Units. ......................................................13-62
Anti-Skid Control Valves. ...................................13-64
Touchdown and Lock Wheel Protection. ............13-65
Auto Brakes. ........................................................13-66
Anti-Skid System Tests. ......................................13-66
Anti-Skid System Maintenance. ..........................13-66
Brake Inspection and Service. .................................13-66
On Aircraft Servicing. .........................................13-67
Lining Wear. ........................................................13-67
Air in the Brake System. ......................................13-68
Bleeding Master Cylinder Brake Systems. ..........13-68
Bleeding Power Brake Systems. ..........................13-70
Off Aircraft Brake Servicing and Maintenance. ........................................................13-71
Replacement of Brake Linings. ...........................13-72
Brake Malfunctions and Damage. ...........................13-74
Overheating . ........................................................13-74
Dragging. .............................................................13-75
Chattering or Squealing. ......................................13-75
Aircraft Tires and Tubes. ............................................13-75
Tire Classification. ..................................................13-75
Types. ...................................................................13-75
Ply Rating. ...........................................................13-77
Tube-Type or Tubeless. .......................................13-77
Bias Ply or Radial. ...............................................13-77
Tire Construction. ....................................................13-77
Bead. ....................................................................13-78
Carcass Plies. .......................................................13-78
Tread. ...................................................................13-78
Sidewall. ..............................................................13-79
Tire Inspection on the Aircraft. ...............................13-79
Inflation. ...............................................................13-79
Tread Condition. ..................................................13-81
Sidewall Condition. .............................................13-85
Tire Removal. ..........................................................13-86
Tire Inspection Off of the Aircraft. .........................13-87
Tire Repair and Retreading. ....................................13-87
Tire Storage. ............................................................13-88
Aircraft Tubes.........................................................13-88
Tube Construction and Selection. ........................13-89
Tube Storage and Inspection. ..............................13-89
Tire Inspection. ....................................................13-89
Tire Mounting. ........................................................13-89
Tubeless Tires. .....................................................13-90
Tube-Type Tires. .................................................13-90
Tire Balancing. ........................................................13-92
Operation and Handling Tips. .....................................13-93
Taxiing. ...................................................................13-93
Braking and Pivoting. ..............................................13-93
Landing Field and Hangar Floor Condition. ...........13-93
Takeoffs and Landings. ...........................................13-93
Hydroplaning. ..........................................................13-94

Chapter 14
Aircraft Fuel System..........................................14-1
Basic Fuel System Requirements. .................................14-1
Fuel System Independence. .......................................14-2
Fuel System Lightning Protection. ............................14-2
Fuel Flow. ..................................................................14-3
Fuel Storage System. ....................................................14-3
Fuel Storage Refilling or Recharging System. .............14-3
Types of Aviation Fuel. ................................................14-3
Reciprocating Engine Fuel—AVGAS. .....................14-3
Volatility. ...............................................................14-4
Vapor Lock. ...........................................................14-4
Carburetor Icing. ....................................................14-4
Aromatic Fuels. ......................................................14-4
Detonation. .............................................................14-5
Surface Ignition and Preignition. ...........................14-5
Octane and Performance Number Rating. .............14-6
Fuel Identification. .................................................14-6
Purity. .....................................................................14-7
Turbine Engine Fuels. ...............................................14-8
Turbine Fuel Volatility. .........................................14-8
Turbine Engine Fuel Types. ..................................14-8
Turbine Engine Fuel Issues. ..................................14-9
Aircraft Fuel Systems. ................................................14-10
Small Single-Engine Aircraft Fuel Systems. ...........14-10
Gravity Feed Systems. .........................................14-10
Pump Feed Systems. ............................................14-10
High-Wing Aircraft with Fuel Injection System. .................................................................14-11
Small Multiengine (Reciprocating) Aircraft Fuel Systems. ..........................................................14-12
Low-Wing Twin. .................................................14-12
High-Wing Twin. .................................................14-12
Large Reciprocating-Engine Aircraft Fuel Systems. ...................................................................14-12
Jet Transport Aircraft Fuel Systems. .......................14-13
Helicopter Fuel Systems. .........................................14-17
Fuel System Components. ..........................................14-19
Fuel Tanks. ..............................................................14-19
Rigid Removable Fuel Tanks. .............................14-19
Bladder Fuel Tanks. .............................................14-20
Integral Fuel Tanks. .............................................14-22
Fuel Lines and Fittings. ...........................................14-22
Fuel Valves. .............................................................14-24
Hand-Operated Valves. ........................................14-25
Cone Valves. ........................................................14-26
Poppet Valves. .....................................................14-26
Manually-Operated Gate Valves. ........................14-27
Motor-Operated Valves. ......................................14-27
Solenoid-Operated Valves. ..................................14-27
Fuel Pumps. .............................................................14-28
Hand-Operated Fuel Pumps. ................................14-28
Centrifugal Boost Pumps. ....................................14-29
Ejector Pumps. .....................................................14-29
Pulsating Electric Pumps. ....................................14-30
Vane-Type Fuel Pumps. ......................................14-31
Fuel Filters. ..............................................................14-33
Fuel Heaters and Ice Prevention. .............................14-36
Fuel System Indicators. ...........................................14-37
Fuel Quantity Indicating Systems. .......................14-37
Fuel Flowmeters. .................................................14-40
Fuel Temperature Gauges. ...................................14-44
Fuel Pressure Gauges. ..........................................14-44
Pressure Warning Signal. .....................................14-45
Valve-In-Transit Indicator Lights. .......................14-46
Fuel System Repair. ....................................................14-46
Troubleshooting the Fuel System. ...........................14-46
Location of Leaks and Defects. ...........................14-46
Fuel Leak Classification. .....................................14-46
Replacement of Gaskets, Seals, and Packings. ....14-47
Fuel Tank Repair. ....................................................14-47
Welded Tanks. .....................................................14-47
Riveted Tanks. .....................................................14-48
Soldered Tanks. ...................................................14-48
Bladder Tanks. .....................................................14-48
Integral Tanks. .....................................................14-49
Fire Safety. ...........................................................14-49
Fuel System Servicing. ...............................................14-50
Checking for Fuel System Contaminants. ...............14-51
Water. ...................................................................14-51
Solid Particle Contaminants. ...............................14-52
Surfactants. ..........................................................14-52
Microorganisms. ..................................................14-52
Foreign Fuel Contamination. ...............................14-53
Detection of Contaminants. .................................14-53
Fuel Contamination Control. ...............................14-55
Fueling and Defueling Procedures. .............................14-56
Fueling. ....................................................................14-56
Defueling. ................................................................14-58
Fire Hazards When Fueling or Defueling. ..............14-58

Chapter 15
Ice and Rain Protection.....................................15-1
Ice Control Systems. .....................................................15-1
Icing Effects. .............................................................15-2
Ice Detector System. .....................................................15-3
Ice Prevention. ...........................................................15-3
Wing and Horizontal and Vertical Stabilizer Anti-Icing Systems. .......................................................15-4
Thermal Pneumatic Anti-icing. .................................15-4
Wing Anti-Ice (WAI) System. ...............................15-4
Leading Edge Slat Anti-Ice System. ......................15-6
Thermal Electric Anti-Icing. ...................................15-10
Chemical Anti-Icing. ...............................................15-10
Wing and Stabilizer Deicing Systems. ........................15-12
Sources of Operating Air. ........................................15-13
Turbine Engine Bleed Air. ...................................15-13
Pneumatic Deice Boot System for GA Aircraft. .....15-13
GA System Operation. .........................................15-13
Deice System for Turboprop Aircraft. ....................15-14
Deicing System Components. .................................15-16
Wet-Type Engine-Driven Air Pump. ...................15-16
Dry-Type Engine-Driven Air Pump. ...................15-17
Oil Separator. .......................................................15-17
Control Valve. ......................................................15-17
Deflate Valve. ......................................................15-18
Distributor Valve. ................................................15-18
Timer/Control Unit. .............................................15-18
Regulators and Relief Valves. .............................15-18
Manifold Assembly. ............................................15-19
Inlet Filter. ...........................................................15-19
Construction and Installation of Deice Boots.........15-19
Inspection, Maintenance, and Troubleshooting of Rubber Deicer Boot Systems. .............................15-21
Operational Checks. .............................................15-21
Adjustments. ........................................................15-21
Troubleshooting. ..................................................15-22
Inspection. ............................................................15-22
Deice Boot Maintenance. ........................................15-22
Electric Deice Boots. ...............................................15-23
Propeller Deice System. ..............................................15-23
Electrothermal Propeller Device System. ...............15-24
Chemical Propeller Deice. .......................................15-24
Ground Deicing of Aircraft. ........................................15-24
Frost Removal. ........................................................15-25
Deicing and Anti-icing of Transport Type Aircraft. ................................................................15-25
Ice and Snow Removal. ...........................................15-26
Rain Control Systems. ................................................15-27
Windshield Wiper Systems. ....................................15-27
Chemical Rain Repellant. ........................................15-28
Windshield Surface Seal Coating. .......................15-28
Pneumatic Rain Removal Systems. .........................15-29
Windshield Frost, Fog, and Ice Control Systems. ......15-29
Electric....................................................................15-30
Pneumatic. ...............................................................15-31
Chemical. .................................................................15-32
Water and Waste Tank Ice Prevention. .......................15-32
Chapter 16Cabin Environmental Control Systems. ...........16-1
Physiology of Flight. .....................................................16-1
Composition of the Atmosphere...............................16-1
Human Respiration and Circulation. .........................16-2
Oxygen and Hypoxia. ............................................16-2
Hyperventilation. ..................................................16-3
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning. ................................16-3
Aircraft Oxygen Systems. .............................................16-3
Forms of Oxygen and Characteristics. ......................16-4
Gaseous Oxygen. ...................................................16-4
Liquid Oxygen. ......................................................16-4
Chemical or Solid Oxygen. ....................................16-5
Onboard Oxygen Generating Systems (OBOGS). ..............................................................16-5
Oxygen Systems and Components. ...........................16-6
Gaseous Oxygen Systems. .....................................16-6
Chemical Oxygen Systems. .................................16-16
LOX Systems. ......................................................16-17
Oxygen System Servicing. ......................................16-17
Servicing Gaseous Oxygen. .................................16-17
Filling LOX Systems. ..........................................16-19
Inspection of Masks and Hoses. ..........................16-20
Replacing Tubing, Valves, and Fittings. .............16-20
Prevention of Oxygen Fires or Explosions.............16-21
Oxygen System Inspection and Maintenance. .....16-21
Aircraft Pressurization Systems. .................................16-21
Pressure of the Atmosphere. ....................................16-21
Temperature and Altitude. .......................................16-22
Pressurization Terms. ..............................................16-23
Pressurization Issues...............................................16-23
Sources of Pressurized Air. .....................................16-24
Reciprocating Engine Aircraft. ............................16-25
Turbine Engine Aircraft. ......................................16-26
Control of Cabin Pressure. ......................................16-28
Pressurization Modes. ..........................................16-28
Cabin Pressure Controller. ...................................16-29
Cabin Air Pressure Regulator and Outflow Valve. ...................................................................16-31
Cabin Air Pressure Safety Valve Operation. .......16-31
Pressurization Gauges. .........................................16-33
Pressurization Operation. .....................................16-33
Air Distribution. ...................................................16-34
Cabin Pressurization Troubleshooting. ................16-35
Air Conditioning Systems. ..........................................16-35
Air Cycle Air Conditioning. ....................................16-35
System Operation. ................................................16-35
Pneumatic System Supply. ..................................16-35
Component Operation. .........................................16-37
Water Separator. ..................................................16-40
Cabin Temperature Control System. ...................16-43
Vapor Cycle Air Conditioning. ...............................16-43
Theory of Refrigeration. ......................................16-43
Vapor Cycle Air Conditioning System Components. ........................................................16-46
Vapor Cycle Air Conditioning Servicing Equipment. ...........................................................16-52
System Servicing. ................................................16-55
Technician Certification. .....................................16-59
Aircraft Heaters. ..........................................................16-59
Bleed Air Systems. ..................................................16-59
Electric Heating Systems........................................16-59
Exhaust Shroud Heaters. .........................................16-59
Combustion Heaters. ...............................................16-60
Combustion Air System. ......................................16-61
Ventilating Air System. .......................................16-61
Ignition System. ...................................................16-62
Controls. ...............................................................16-62
Safety Features. ....................................................16-62
Maintenance and Inspection. ...............................16-63

Chapter 17
Fire Protection Systems. ...................................17-1
Introduction. ..................................................................17-1
Classes of Fires. .........................................................17-2
Requirements for Overheat and Fire Protection Systems. .....................................................................17-2
Fire Detection/Overheat Systems. ................................17-2
Thermal Switch System............................................17-2
Thermocouple System. ..............................................17-3
Continuous-Loop Systems. .......................................17-4
Fenwal System. ......................................................17-4
Kidde System. ........................................................17-4
Pressure Type Sensor Responder Systems. ...............17-6
Pneumatic Continuous-Loop Systems. ..................17-7
Fire Zones. .................................................................17-8
Smoke, Flame, and Carbon Monoxide Detection Systems. ........................................................................17-8
Smoke Detectors.......................................................17-8
Light Refraction Type. ...........................................17-8
Ionization Type. .....................................................17-8
Flame Detectors. ........................................................17-9
Carbon Monoxide Detectors. ....................................17-9
Extinguishing Agents and Portable Fire Extinguishers. ..............................................................17-10
Halogenated Hydrocarbons. ....................................17-10
Inert Cold Gases. .....................................................17-10
Dry Powders. ...........................................................17-10
Water. ......................................................................17-10
Cockpit and Cabin Interiors. ...................................17-11
Extinguisher Types. .............................................17-11
Installed Fire Extinguishing Systems. .........................17-11
CO2 Fire Extinguishing Systems. ............................17-11
Halogenated Hydrocarbons Fire Extinguishing Systems. ...................................................................17-11
Containers. ...............................................................17-12
Discharge Valves. ....................................................17-12
Pressure Indication. .................................................17-13
Two-Way Check Valve. ..........................................17-13
Discharge Indicators. ...............................................17-13
Thermal Discharge Indicator (Red Disk). ...........17-13
Yellow Disk Discharge Indicator. .......................17-13
Fire Switch. .............................................................17-13
Cargo Fire Detection. ..................................................17-14
Cargo Compartment Classification. ........................17-14
Class A. ................................................................17-14
Class B. ................................................................17-14
Class C. ................................................................17-14
Class E. ................................................................17-14
Cargo and Baggage Compartment Fire
Detection and Extinguisher System. .......................17-14
Smoke Detector System. ......................................17-15
Cargo Compartment Extinguishing System. .......17-16
Lavatory Smoke Detectors. .........................................17-16
Lavatory Smoke Detector System. ..........................17-17
Lavatory Fire Extinguisher System. ........................17-18
Fire Detection System Maintenance. ..........................17-18
Fire Detection System Troubleshooting. ....................17-20
Fire Extinguisher System Maintenance. .....................17-20
Container Pressure Check. ......................................17-20
Discharge Cartridges. ..............................................17-20
Agent Containers. ....................................................17-21
Fire Prevention. ...........................................................17-21
Glossary. ..............................................................G-1
Index. ......................................................................I-1

Spider Optimizer

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