Engineering Application and Design
- The following are to links to Hydraulic and Pneumatic design, engineering, tools, articles and other useful data.
- Should you find any errors omissions broken links, please let us know - Feedback
** Search this PAGE ONLY, click on Magnifying Glass **
Hydraulic and Pneumatic General
- Annular Capacity Between Casing or Hole and Drill Pipe, Tubing, or Casing Formula and Calculator
- Annular Flow Capacity Between Casing and Multiple Strings of Tubing Formula and Calculator
- Chézy and Manning's Equation Manning's equation, based on Chezy's equation, is a common method to calculate the free surface flow.
- Colebrook Friction Loss Formula for Round Ducts
- Compressibility of a Fluid Equations and Calculator
- Fluid Flow Open Channel Calculator Calculator uses Chézy and Manning's equation
- Manning's Roughness Coefficient Manning's Roughness Coefficient Chart Table
- Boyle's Law for Behavior of Gas Boyles Law for Behavior of Gas
- Burst Pressure of Pipe or Tube
- Calculation of Mass Flow Rate Equation
- Capillary Action Burst Pressure of Pipe or Tubing Equation
- Charles Law for Behavior of Gases Charles Law for Behavior of Gases
- Copper Tubing Size Chart ASTM B88 Copper tube, tubing types and standards based on ASTM B88, Type K, L, and M size, wall thickness and weight specifications.
- Copper Tubing HVAC Size Chart Characteristics Chart of Copper Tube: Medical Gas, K and L per. ASTM B 819.
- Copper Tube Size Chart Medical Gas, K and L Characteristics Chart of Copper Tube: Medical Gas, K and L per. ASTM B 819.
- Fluids Discharge Measurement Structures and Systems, Basic Principles of Fluid Flow as Applied to Measuring Systems
- Effective Force of a Cylinder at an Angle to Direction of the Load Travel Effective force of a cylinder working at an angle to direction of the load travel
- Flow Losses for Valves and Fittings in Equivalent Feet if Pipe.
- Fluid Characteristic Chart Fluid Characteristics Chart for Vapor Pressure kPa, Density, Kinematic Viscosity at specified temperature
- Fluid Pressure Loss Along Pipe Length of Uniform Diameter Pressure drop in pipes, Friction, Vertical pipe difference or elevation, Changes of kinetic energy, Calculation of pressure drop
- Fluids Flow, Aerodynamics Calculate, Mach Number, Reynolds Number, Dynamics Pressure, Viscosity, Laminar CF Turbulent CF, Density
- Fluid Power, Hydraulics Formula Equations Fluid Power applications, Fluid Velocity on a pipe, Charles Law, and more.
- Fluid Kinetic Force in Conduits Calculator and Equation
- Steel Pipe Flow Friction Loss for sizes 10" to 12 " inch diameter
- Friction Losses in Steel Pipes size 0.5 to 1.25 inch diameter
- Friction Loss in Steel Pipe 1.5" to 3" inch diameter
- Steel Pipe Flow Loss Friction for sizes 4 " to 8 " inch diameter
- Friction Losses to Water Flow in Copper Pipes Size 0.5 to 1.00 inch diameter
- Friction Flow Losses in Copper Tubing of Water in Sizes 1.25 to 1.5 inch diameter
- Friction Flow Losses in Copper Tubing of Water in Sizes 2 to 3 inch diameter
- Fluid Momentum Flux Equation and Calculator Momentum Flux is the rate of change of momentum flowing through unit area.
- Hazen-Williams Water Pressure Drop Flow Rates Calculator Equation Hazen–Williams equation is an empirical relationship which relates the flow of water in a pipe with the physical properties of the pipe
- Hazen-Williams Coefficients Table Typical C factors used in the Hazen–Williams equation
- Head Loss at Pipe Entrance Equations and Calculator using the head loss coefficient and head loss of a fluid at a smooth bellmouth pipe entrance.
- Head Loss at Pipe Abrupt Exit Equations and Calculator of a fluid.
- Head loss and head loss coefficient equation and calculator of a fluid in across a screen (circular metal wire mesh) inside a pipe.
- Head coefficient and head loss across angled louvers inside a pipe equation and calculator.
- Heat Equivalent of Fluid Power Heat Equivalent of Fluid Power
- Heat Radiating Capacity of a Steel Reservoir Heat Radiating Capacity of a Steel Reservoir
- Hydraulic Cylinder Piston Velocity Speed at which the piston rod of a hydraulic cylinder moves is based on the following equation:
- Hydraulic, General Fluid Power General Design Rules and Application
- Hydraulic Head Pressure Hydraulic head pressure or piezometric head is a specific measurement of liquid pressure above a geodetic datum.
- Hydraulic Turbine Actual Power Formula and Calculator
- Hydrostatic Pressure vs Depth Liquid Table Chart Hydrostatic Pressure vs Depth Water Table Chart and Equation
- ISO Hydraulic Schematic Symbol Menu ISO Hydraulic Schematic Symbols and other useful data.
- Labyrinth Seal Labyrinth seal is a type of mechanical seal that provides a tortuous path to help prevent leakage.
Transfer of liquid water through porous materials may be characterized as a diffusion-like process
- Liquid Filtering Systems The ideal liquid / fluid filtering system will remove all foreign contaminants from the liquid
- Bolt Torque Required for Sealing Flanges with Gaskets and Internal Pressure
- Maximum Storm Drain Pipe Flow Rate per. International Plumbing Code (IPC 2018) Table 1106.2
- Viscosity of Fluid with Falling Sphere at Terminal Velocity Equation and Calculator Measurement of Viscosity in a Vertical Falling Ball Viscometer Calculator
- Mechanical Seal Balance Ratio Formula and Calculator
- Moody Chart Moody diagram is a graph in non-dimensional form that relates the Darcy-Weisbach friction factor fD, Reynolds number Re, and relative roughness for fully developed flow in a circular pipe.
- Nozzle, Venturi and Orifice Flowmeter Formula and Calculator Flow in a pipeline can be measured by a venturi meter, flow nozzle, or orifice plate.
- Oil mist Eliminators Review Oil Mist Eliminators trap or filter out oil mist created by machines before the mist is expelled into the ambient environment.
- Pipe Enlargement and Reduction Head, Heat and Minor Losses Formula
- Pipe Schedules standard pipe schedule or pipes sizes as given by ANSI / ASME B36.10M and API 5L
- Pipe - Steel Burst Pressure Chart Chart defines the theoretical bursting pressure for carbon steel pipe rated Grade A, seamless tensile strength minimum 48,000 psi
- Pipe Strength Equation and Calculator Calculator and associated equations will determine the working pressure of a known diameter pipe.
- Pipe Max Flow Rate Maximum recommended flow rates at the given pressure for ANSI schedule 40 pipe.
- Pipeline Pigs, Pigging Review Pigging in the context of pipelines refers to the practice of using devices known as "pigs" to perform various maintenance operations on a pipeline.
- Pitot Tube Velocity of Fluid Flow Measurement Pitot tube stagnation pressure equation for an incompressible fluid
- Relationship Between Displacement and Torque of a Hydraulic Motor Equation to determine the torque created by a hydraulic motor with respect to the motors displacement.
- Series and Parallel Pump Spreadsheet Calculator
Requires a Premium Membership to download
- Side Load on Pump or Motor Shaft Side Load on Pump or Motor Shaft Equation Calculation
- Siphon Flow and Discharge Rates Tables and Charts
- Siphon Flow Rate from Small Pipes Equation and Calculator
- Speed of Sound in Various Fluids, Liquids and Solids
- Speed of Sound in a Liquid or Fluid Formula
- Standard Atmospheric Data for Altitude and Temperature The standard atmosphere gives a standard of reference for estimating properties at various altitudes.
- Straight Pipe Under Internal Pressure Formula and Calculator per. ASME B31.5
- Straight Pipe Threads Table Chart ANSI Straight Pipe Threads for Mechanical Joints, NPSM and NPSL ANSI/ASME B1.20.1, American Pipe Threads Standard.
- Stainless Steel Pipe per. ASTM A312 and ANSI B36.19
- Design Thickness of Pipe Blanks Caps Formula and Calculator per. ASME B31.5
- Temperature Rise Mechanical Seal Chamber Formula and Calculator
- Time to Freeze Outdoor / Indoor Piping Formulas and Calculator ASHRAE
- Thermal Expansion of Metal Pipe Temperature changes cause dimensional changes in all materials. Table 1.0 shows the coefficients of expansion for metallic piping materials. For systems operating at high temperatures, such as steam and hot water, the rate of expansion is high, and significant movements can occur in short runs of piping.
- Total Head Pressure Velocity Equations and Calculator
- Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Standard Tubes Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Standard Tubes Table
- Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Schedule 40 Pipe Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Schedule 40 Pipe
- Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Schedule 80 Pipe Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Schedule 80 Pipe
- Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Schedule 160 Pipe Velocity and Flow Capacity of Oil Schedule 160 Pipe
Water Vapor Permeability
Diffusive transfer of water vapor through porous materials is often described by a modified form of Fick’s law
Pneumatic System Components
Hydraulic and Pneumatic Systems
Hydraulic System Components
- Bag Type Fluid Accumulator - General Design Consists of a seamless high-pressure shell, cylindrical in shape, with domed ends and a synthetic rubber bag
- Control Valve Sizing Liquid, Mass Flow Spreadsheet Calculator
- Control Valve Sizing Steam or Vapor Flow Spreadsheet Calculator
- Control Valve Sizing Gas Flow Spreadsheet Calculator
- Control Valve 90 Deg Flow to Relative Travel Table Spreadsheet Calculator
- IEC Aerodynamic Noise in Control Valves Mass Spreadsheet Calculator
- IEC Aerodynamic Noise Volumetric in Control Valves Mass Spreadsheet Calculator
- IEC Hydrodynamic Noise Mass in Control Valves Mass Spreadsheet Calculator
- Electric Motor Actuator Electric motor actuators vary widely in their design and applications.
- Fluid Accumulator - General Application Hydraulic accumulator is a pressure storage reservoir in which a non-compressible hydraulic fluid
- Fluid Energy Loss in Fittings and Valves Formula, Calculator and Tables There are two standard ways to calculate the energy lost in fittings and valves: the resistance coefficient method, and the equivalent length method. The method chosen will depend on what information is provided with the fitting to be analyzed.
- Hydraulic Actuator / Cylinder Design and Operation Typical piston-type hydraulic actuator
- Hydraulic Accumulator Sizing Calculations Most accumulators used within industry are limited to an operating pressure of 3000 psi.
- Hydraulic Shock Absorber Review Hydraulic Shock Absorbers utilize liquid fluid to convert mechanical energy into thermal energy.
- Pex (Cross-Linked Polyethylene) Specifications PEX is a polymeric material formed by the chemical joining of individual polyethylene molecules in a process called crosslinking. Crosslinking alters the performance of the original polyethylene polymer improving several key properties.
- Pinch Valves Review Pinch valve is an hydraulic, pneumatic or industrial pipe valve having a full or partially restricted port control valve for flow passage control.
- Pipe Bends Minimum Wall Thickness Design Calculator per. ASME B31.3
- Piston Type Fluid Accumulator - General Design Accumulator consists of a cylinder assembly, a piston assembly, and two end-cap assemblies
- Spring Type Fluid Accumulator - General Design Energy stored in springs to create a constant force on the liquid contained in an adjacent ram assembly.
- Schedule 40 Steel Pipe Sizes & Dimensions ANSI Dimensional - size data for American National Standard Schedule 40 Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe.
- Schedule 80 Steel Pipe Sizes & Dimensions ANSI Data for American National Standard Schedule 80 Welded and Seamless Steel Pipe
- Schedule 40 Plastic PVC, CPVC Pipe Sizes & Dimensions Schedule 40 Plastic PVC, CPVC and Other Pipe Sizes and Dimensions
- Schedule 80 Plastic PVC, CPVC Pipe Sizes & Dimensions Schedule 80 Plastic PVC, CPVC and Other Pipe Sizes and Dimensions
- Plastic PVC, CPVC Pipe Applications Plastic PVC, CPVC, other pipes commonly found within industrial and residential use within North America.
O-Rings / Elastomers