**Related Resources: fluid flow**

### Manometer Application Equation for Pressure

**Fluids Flow Engineering
Hydraulic & Pneumatic Design Engineering**

**U-Tube Manometer Equation and Calculator**

A Manometer is an instrument for measuring gas or vapor pressure- especially at low levels. Manometer's are used to measure the difference between dynamic and static pressures and may be configured as a u-tube, a single tube, or inverted depending on the application.

**U-tube manometer measuring pressure relative to atmosphere (gauge pressure) equation.**

p = p_{m}gh

Where:

p_{m} = density of manometer fluid (kg/m^{3} , lb/in^{3})

h = manometer reading or height difference (m, in)

g = acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/s^{2} , 32.174 in/s^{2})

p = Measured pressure ( N/m^{2}, lb/in^{2})

**Open: ****Manometer Pressure Calculators**

**U-tube manometer - differential pressure Equation**

p = p_{1} - p_{2} = ( p_{m} - p_{f}) g h

Where:

p_{1} - p_{2} = Pressure Difference

p_{m} = density of manometer fluid (kg/m^{3} , lb/in^{3})

pf = density of measured fluid. (kg/m^{3} , lb/in^{3})

h = manometer reading or height difference (m, in)

g = acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/s^{2} , 32.174 in/s^{2})

p = Measured Pressure Difference ( N/m^{2}, lb/in^{2})

**Open: ****Manometer Pressure Calculators**

**Single-leg manometer - Gauge Pressure Equation **

Measured pressure p = p_{m}gh

Where:

p = Measured Pressure Difference ( N/m^{2}, lb/in^{2})

p_{m} = density of manometer fluid (kg/m^{3} , lb/in^{3})

h = manometer reading or height difference (m, in)

g = acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/s^{2} , 32.174 in/s^{2})

**Open: ****Manometer Pressure Calculators**

**Inclined single-leg manometer Measured Pressure Equation**

Measured pressure p = p_{m}gL sin*θ*

Where:

p = Measured Pressure Difference ( N/m^{2}, lb/in^{2})

p_{m} = density of manometer fluid (kg/m^{3} , lb/in^{3})

g = acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/s^{2} , 32.174 in/s^{2})

L = Length (m, in)

*θ* = Angle

**Open: ****Manometer Pressure Calculators**

**Inverted U-tube manometer Equation**

Pressure difference (p_{1} - p_{2}) = (p_{f} - p_{m})gh

Where:

p = p_{1} - p_{2} = Pressure Difference ( N/m^{2}, lb/in^{2})

p_{m} = density of manometer fluid (kg/m^{3} , lb/in^{3})

p_{f} = density of measured fluid. (kg/m^{3} , lb/in^{3})

h = manometer reading or height difference (m, in)

g = acceleration due to gravity (9.81 m/s^{2} , 32.174 in/s^{2})

**Open: ****Manometer Pressure Calculators**

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