Fluid Mechanics and Machinery 
The flow of ideal nonviscous fluids was extensively studied and mathematical theories were developed during the last century. The field of study was called as ‘Hydrodynamics’. However the results of mathematical analysis could not be applied directly to the flow of real fluids. 

Siphon Flow and Discharge Rates 
Plastic or aluminum smooth wall siphons and tubes are commonly used to deliver water from a canal or ditch to the furrows. These conduits may also be used to measure the rate of flow. 

Vacuum Engineering Calculations and Applications 
Vacuum is now required for many scientific and industrial purposes, particularly those associated with semiconductors, lighting bulbs, and materialcoating industries. The need to manufacture in highly characterized and controlled vacuum brings continual progress in the design, operation, and maintenance of vacuum systems, challenging the people involved in these activities. 

Pressure Drop High Vacuum System 
For sizing a high vacuum distribution system, use this vacuum sizing chart. Assumes velocity of 4,000 fpm,Type L copper, with pressure drop in in. Hg/100 ft 

Fundamentals of Vacuum Technology 
Residual gas analyses at low pressures, measurement of low pressures, pressure monitoring, open and closedloop pressure control, and leaks and their detection. Included for the first time are the sections covering the devices used to measure and control the application of coatings and uses for vacuum technology in the coating process. 

High Vacuum Technology 
High Vacuum Technology basic components of vacuum systems, including pumps, gauges, couplings and valves. The use of basic concepts and of the components is then illustrated in chapters dealing with the design, construction, operation and leak testing of practical systems. 

