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Handbook of Machine Design

Instrumentation and Electronics Engineering and Design

The Constructor, A Handbook of Machine Design
F. Reuleaux
Professor at the Royal Technical High School at Berlin, Royal Privy Cotincillor, Member of the Royal Technical Deputation, Corresponding Member of the Institute of Lombardy and of the Swedish Technical Society, Foreign Member of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Stockholm, Honorary Member of the Technical Societies of Riga and Erfurt, of the Technical Society of Frankfurt a M., of the Society of Arts of Geneva, of the Flora Society of Cologne, of the American Philosophical Society and of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers


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The kinematic analysis has shown that such devices as pneumatic tubes, canal locks, and the like,both ancient and modern, belong to precisely the same class of constrained combinations as steam engines and water wheels, the whole subject has been condensed and simplified in a manner not possible under the earlier conceptions. The value of the kinematic method is evident in in Section 333, where fifty different combinations of pressure organs are gathered together under a few and simple fundamental principles. Another instance* is shown near the end of the book in the discussion of what I have called " Fluid valves." From the time of Hero of Alexandria down to the present day, these fluid valves have been used in what is now seen to be a continuous series of applications of a simple kinematical principle. These important simplifications will both excuse and justify the wide departure from previous conceptions which characterizes the latter part of the volume.

In regard to the other and principal object of the work, namely, the treatment of the practical construction of machine details, this has not been as consistently and fully revised as I had intended and desired ; chiefly owing to the long delay in the completion of the last edition. In my lectures I have been able to follow the the technical advances which have been made in the detailed construction of bearings, levers, cranks, connecting rods, etc., and discuss them accordingly, but in the book itself many of these subjects still appear in the older dress. For these imperfections the kind indulgence of the reader is requested, and in the next edition an earnest endeavor will be made to bring these subjects up to ^ate.

To Mr. Henry Harrison Suplee, to whom I have given the exclusive right of translation, I take this opportunity to express my particular appreciation of the great care and extraordinary accuracy which he has displayed in the production of this English version, and also my gratification at the care which has been given to the printing and the reproduction of the illustrations. Mr. Suplee has recalculated and transformed all the'";formuIae and numerous tables into the English system of measurements, and also reworked all the examples, and has shown in this portion of the work a patience that deserves especial recognition. It is a matter of regret that the time has not yet arrived for the general acceptance of the metric system in England and America, and until such time comes tedious transformations of this sort will often be necessary and will merit our gratitude,

I can only add that it is my earnest desire that the friendly acceptance of my book by English speaking engineers may correspond to the magnitude of the labor which has been . expended in the preparation of this translation.

Honorary Member, American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Berlin, February, 1803.


Coefficients of Resistance
Resistance to Tension and Compression 2
Bodies of Uniform Strength 2
Resistance to Shearing 2
Resistance to Bending 2
Table of Sections 5
Value of the Quantity S 8
Sections of Uniform Resistance.... 8
Bodies of Uniform Resistance to Bending 8
Resistance to Shearing in the Neutral Plane 10
Beams with a Common Load 11
Resistance to Torsion 11
Polar Moment of Inertia and Section Modulus II
Bodies of Uniform Resistance to Torsion 13
Resistance to Buckling 13
Columns of Uniform Resistance. ... 13
Compound Stresses 13
Resistance of Walls of Vessels 15
Calculation of Springs 18


Introductory 22
Multiplication by Lines 22
Division by Lines 23
Multiplication and Division Combined 23
Area of Triangles 23
Area of Quadrilateral Figures 23
Area of Polygons 24
Graphical Calculation of Powers 24
Powers of Trigonometrical Functions 25
Extraction of Roots 26
Addition and Subtraction of Forces. 26
Isolated forces in One Plane— Cord Polygon 26
Equilibrium of External Forces of Cord Polygon 27
Equilibrium of Internal Forces of Cord Polygon 28
Resultant of Isolated Forces in One Plane 29
Conditions of Equilibrium of Isolated Forces 29
Force Couples 29
Equilibrium between Three Parallel Forces 30
Resultant of Several Parallel Forces 31
Decomposition of Forces 31
Uniformly Distributed Parallel Forces 32
Twisting and Bending Movements. - 33
Determination of Centre of Gravity 33
Resultant of Load on Water Wheel. 34
Force Plans for Framed Structures. 35
Force Plans for Roof Trusses 36
Graphical Determination of Wind Stresses 37
Force Plans for Framed Beams. ... 38
Remarks 38

Introductory 39

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