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### Handbook of Machine Design

**Instrumentation and Electronics Engineering and Design**

The Constructor, A Handbook of Machine Design

F. Reuleaux

Professor at the Royal Technical High School at Berlin, Royal Privy Cotincillor,
Member of the Royal Technical Deputation, Corresponding Member of the Institute
of Lombardy and of the Swedish Technical Society, Foreign Member of the Royal
Academy of Sciences of Stockholm, Honorary Member of the Technical Societies of
Riga and Erfurt, of the Technical Society of Frankfurt a M., of the Society of
Arts of Geneva, of the Flora Society of Cologne, of the American Philosophical
Society and of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers

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INTRODUCTION.

The kinematic analysis has shown that such
devices as pneumatic tubes, canal locks, and the like,both ancient and modern,
belong to precisely the same class of constrained combinations as steam engines
and water wheels, the whole subject has been condensed and simplified in a
manner not possible under the earlier conceptions. The value of the kinematic
method is evident in in Section 333, where fifty different combinations of
pressure organs are gathered together under a few and simple fundamental
principles. Another instance* is shown near the end of the book in the
discussion of what I have called " Fluid valves." From the time of Hero of
Alexandria down to the present day, these fluid valves have been used in what is
now seen to be a continuous series of applications of a simple kinematical
principle. These important simplifications will both excuse and justify the wide
departure from previous conceptions which characterizes the latter part of the
volume.

In regard to the other and principal object of the work, namely,
the treatment of the practical construction of machine details, this has not
been as consistently and fully revised as I had intended and desired ; chiefly
owing to the long delay in the completion of the last edition. In my lectures I
have been able to follow the the technical advances which have been made in the
detailed construction of bearings, levers, cranks, connecting rods, etc., and
discuss them accordingly, but in the book itself many of these subjects still
appear in the older dress. For these imperfections the kind indulgence of the
reader is requested, and in the next edition an earnest endeavor will be made to
bring these subjects up to ^ate.

To Mr. Henry Harrison Suplee, to whom I
have given the exclusive right of translation, I take this opportunity to
express my particular appreciation of the great care and extraordinary accuracy
which he has displayed in the production of this English version, and also my
gratification at the care which has been given to the printing and the
reproduction of the illustrations. Mr. Suplee has recalculated and transformed
all the'";formuIae and numerous tables into the English system of measurements,
and also reworked all the examples, and has shown in this portion of the work a
patience that deserves especial recognition. It is a matter of regret that the
time has not yet arrived for the general acceptance of the metric system in
England and America, and until such time comes tedious transformations of this
sort will often be necessary and will merit our gratitude,

I can only
add that it is my earnest desire that the friendly acceptance of my book by
English speaking engineers may correspond to the magnitude of the labor which
has been . expended in the preparation of this translation.

F. REULEAUX,

Honorary Member, American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Berlin, February,
1803.

TOC

SECTION I.

STRENGTH OK MATERIALS.

Introductory

Coefficients of Resistance

Resistance to Tension and Compression 2

Bodies of Uniform Strength 2

Resistance to Shearing 2

Resistance to Bending 2

Table of Sections 5

Value of the
Quantity S 8

Sections of Uniform Resistance.... 8

Bodies of Uniform
Resistance to Bending 8

Resistance to Shearing in the Neutral Plane 10

Beams with a Common Load 11

Resistance to Torsion 11

Polar Moment of Inertia and Section Modulus II

Bodies of Uniform
Resistance to Torsion 13

Resistance to Buckling 13

Columns of Uniform Resistance. ... 13

Compound Stresses 13

Resistance of Walls of Vessels 15

Calculation of Springs 18

SECTION II.

THE ELEMENTS OF GRAPHOSTATICS.

Introductory 22

Multiplication by Lines 22

Division by Lines 23

Multiplication
and Division Combined 23

Area of Triangles 23

Area of
Quadrilateral Figures 23

Area of Polygons 24

Graphical
Calculation of Powers 24

Powers of Trigonometrical Functions 25

Extraction of Roots 26

Addition and Subtraction of Forces. 26

Isolated forces in One Planeâ€” Cord Polygon 26

Equilibrium of External Forces
of Cord Polygon 27

Equilibrium of Internal Forces of Cord Polygon 28

Resultant of Isolated Forces in One Plane 29

Conditions of
Equilibrium of Isolated Forces 29

Force Couples 29

Equilibrium
between Three Parallel Forces 30

Resultant of Several Parallel Forces 31

Decomposition of Forces 31

Uniformly Distributed Parallel Forces 32

Twisting and Bending Movements. - 33

Determination of
Centre of Gravity 33

Resultant of Load on Water Wheel. 34

Force
Plans for Framed Structures. 35

Force Plans for Roof Trusses 36

Graphical Determination of Wind Stresses 37

Force Plans for Framed
Beams. ... 38

Remarks 38

SECTION III.

THE
CONSTRUCTION OF MACHINE ELEMENTS.

Introductory 39

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