Machine Design Part I Fastenings
Machine Design, Part I Fastenings
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WILLIAM LEDYARD CATHCART
ADJUNCT PROFESSOR OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY;
MEMBER AMERICAN SOCIETY OP MECHANICAL ENGINEERS;
MEMBER Of THE AMERICAN SOCIETY OF NAVAL ENGINEERS;
MEMBER OF THE SOCIETY OF NAVAL ARCHITECTS AND MARINE ENGINEERS.
The main purpose of this book is to present, in compact form for the use of the student and designer, modern American data from the best practice in the branch of Machine Design to which the work refers. The theoretical treatment of the subject has also been given fully ; but this has been done for completeness only, since that field has been covered exhaustively by able writers- Scientific analysis and the records of practice are both essential to success in the design of machine members, but neither alone is trustworthy. The former predicts only those stresses which prevail under normal conditions arid ignores the overload, the rough handling, or the slight accident which the machine may meet and against which it should not fail. Practical data, on the other hand, show only the proportions which constructors have given in specific cases of stress and service and empirical formulae founded upon them may give results wide of the mark, if the inherent limitations of these formulae be exceeded. The problem of design is one whose many elements vary continually in number, character, and magnitude, and, for its solution, theoretical analysis, precedent, and the ripened judgment of the designer are required.
Elsewhere acknowledgment has been made of the courtesy of the many officials and companies who have furnished information. The author's thanks are due especially to Rear Admiral George W. Melville, Engineer-in-Chief, U. S. Navy ; Professor Philip R. Alger, U. S. Navy ; Professor J. Irvin Chaffee ; Leo Morgan, Esq.; J. M. Allen, Esq., President the Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company ; C. C. Schneider, Esq., Vice President the American Bridge Company ; Messrs. William Sellers and a Company ; the Baldwin Locomotive Works ; and the Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company. The author desires also to express his deep indebtedness to Stevenson Taylor, Esq., Ci President of Webb's Academy and Vice President of the W. and A. Fletcher Co., whose examination of, and additions to, the text have added materially to the value of this work.
CHAPTER I. PACK. SHRINKAGE AND PRESSURE JOINTS:......
i i. General formulae.
2. Proportions of the joint.
4. Forcing pressures.
5. Shrinkage temperatures.
6. Shrinkage vs. pressure fits.
7. Stationary engines, data from practice.
8. Marine engines, data from practice.
9. Railway work, data from practice.
10. Shrinkage in gun construction.
CHAPTER II. SCREW FASTENINGS : . . . . . . . .42
ii. Triangular vs. square threads.
12. Requirements of the screw-thread.
13. Elements of the screw-thread.
14. The U. S. standard (Sellers) thread.
15. Modifications of the Sellers system.
16. The sharp V thread.
17. The Whitworth thread.
18. The sharp V, Sellers, and Whitworth threads.
19. The French Standard thread.
20. The International Standard thread.
21. The British Association Standard thread.
22. The square thread.
23. The V thread.
24. Special threads.
25. Machine and wood screws.
26. Pipe threads.
27. Stresses in screw-bolts.
28. Stresses in nuts.
29. Efficiency of the screw.
30. Types of screw fastenings.
31. Methods of manufacture.
CHAPTER III. RIVETED JOINTS : THEORY AND FORMULAE : . . . .127
36. Proportions of rivets.
37. Rivet and plate metals.
39. Boiler-seams: longitudinal, circumferential, and helical.
40. Forms of riveted joints.
41. The elements of a riveted joint.
42. The theoretical strength of riveted joints.
43. General formulae for boiler-joints.
44. The thickness of shell sheets.
45. The stresses in riveted joints.
46. The friction of riveted joints.
CHAPTER IV. RIVETED JOINTS : TESTS AND DATA FROM PRACTICE : . . .192
47. Tests of multiple-riveted, double-strapped butt joints.
48. Riveting machines.
49. Riveted joints, marine boilers.
50. Riveted joints, locomotive boilers.
51. Riveted joints, stationary boilers.
52. Riveted joints, structural work.
53. Riveted joints, hull plating.
CHAPTER V. KEYED JOINTS: PIN-JOINTS: . 251
54. Forms of keys.
55. Proportions of keys.
56. Stresses on keys.
57. Through-keys: forms.
58. Through-keys: stresses.