Crude Oil Distillation Review

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Crude Oil Distillation Review

Crude Oil distillation. In the first stage the crude petroleum is mixed with water to dissolve any salt. The resulting brine is separated by settling. The remaining oil is pumped through a tubular furnace where it is partially vaporized. The components that have a low number of carbon atoms vaporize and pass into a fractionating column or tower. As the vapors rise in the column, cooling causes condensation. By controlling the temperature, the volatile components may be separated into fractions that fall within particular boiling point ranges. In general, compounds with the lowest boiling points have the fewest carbon atoms and compounds with the highest boiling points have the greatest number of carbon atoms. This process reduces the number of compounds within each fraction and provides different qualities. The final products derived from this first-stage distillation process are raw gasoline, kerosene, and diesel fuel.

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