Effects of Temperature Changes on Fluid Properties - Thermodynamics

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Effects of Temperature Changes on Fluid Properties

An increase in temperature will tend to decrease the density of any fluid. If the fluid is confinedin a container of fixed volume, the effect of a temperaturechange will depend on whether thefluid is compressible. If the fluid is a gas, it will respond to a temperature change in a manner predicted by the ideal gas laws. A 5% increase in absolute temperature will resultin a 5% increase in the absolute pressure.

If the fluid is an incompressible liquid in a closed container, an increase in the temperature will have a tremendously greater and potentially catastrophic effect. As the fluid temperature increases, it tries to expand, but expansion is prevented by the walls of the container. Because the fluid is incompressible, this results in a tremendous increase in pressure for a relatively minor temperature change. The change in specific volume for a given change in temperature is not the same at various beginning temperatures. Resultant pressure changes will vary. A useful thumb rule for water is that pressure in a water-solid system will increase about 100 psi for every 1 F increase in temperature.