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Weldment Engineering Design Evaluation Methods

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Weldment Engineering Design Evaluation Methods

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Weldment Engineering Design Evaluation Methods


The most important criterion for judging the performance of a weldment is whether or not it performs the functions required for its intended service. A service performance test, therefore, is really the final test. However, the need for weldment evaluation exists long before the final structure is complete and actual service begins. Some type of test which will give the best information on how the product will perform during fabrication and service must be used prior to fabrication to provide indications of the efficiency of design, welding procedures, expected mechanical properties, and behavior during service.

Weldment evaluation is very complex. There are many methods for evaluating welded joints. There are many kinds of test specimens, and often there are several ways of evaluating these specimens. Even in only one respect of weldment evaluation, such as cracking, there are many variables involved; for cracking, they include temperature (subzero to elevated temperatures), the types of test specimens, and the welding conditions. In some instances, more than one type of specimen must be used to obtain reliable information on the expected service performance of the welded joints.

Numerous reports are available on weldment evaluation but these are usually limited to a specific test method for a limited application. When considering evaluation methods for weldments, one may find it difficult to obtain information on the wide variety of test specimens or evaluation methods that are available and that will fulfill the designer's or fabricator I s requirements. This comprehensive report reviews the broad range of test specimens and evaluation methods that are available or of special current interest for evaluating welds.

Tension, shear, bend, toughness, fatigue, creep, stress rupture, and cracking tests are widely used for fusion-welded, spot-welded, and brazed joints. Descriptions of many of these tests with drawings of specimens used for the tests are included to provide a needed reference for selecting or designing suitable test specimens for the weldment being considered. The drawings also serve to show that many special test specimens, in addition to the standard specimens, have been and can be developed for special applications. Publications and specifications are cited to provide the reader with references to additional details of the testing procedures .

Research Metallurgical Engineer, Associate Chief, and Chief, respectively, of Materials Joining Engineering Division, Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio.


  • Weldment Tension Tests
    • Transverse-Weld Tension Specimens
    • Longitudinal-Weld Tension Specimens
    • All Weld-Metal tension Specimens
    • Spot-Weld Cross Tension Specimens
    • Brazed Joint Tension Specimens
  • Shear Tests
    • Fillet Weld Shear Specimens
    • Spot Weld Shear Specimens
    • Brazed Joint Shear Specimens
  • Bend Tests
    • Longitudinal Weld Specimens
    • Transverse Weld Bend Specimens
    • Free BEnd Specimens
    • Fillet Weld Tee Bend Specimens
    • Notched Bend Specimens
    • Bend Test Fixtures
  • Fatigue Tests
    • Transverse Weld Fatigue Specimens
    • Longitudinal Weld Fatigue Specimens
    • Fillet Weld Fatigue Specimens
    • Spot Weld Fatigue Specimens
    • Brazed Joint Fatigue Specimens
  • Cracking Susceptibility Tests
  • Notch-Toughness Tests and Fracture Toughness Tests
    Notch Toughness TEst Specimens
    • Specimens for Studies of Fracture Mechanisms
    • Fracture Toughness TEst Specimens
  • Stress Rupture and Creep tests
  • Soundness Tests
  • Hardness Tests
  • References
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