Related Resources: Design for Manufacturing

Handbook of Manufacturing Processes

Design for Manufacturing Resources

Handbook of Manufacturing Processes


  • Features practical, understandable explanations; even for complex processes.
  • Includes clear descriptions of how each of 1500 current and recently developed manufacturing processes work, what they do to the material or workpiece that is worked on, what the results are, and where these processes are used and why.
  • Explains how 600 products, components or materials are made; including nylon, gasoline, decaffeinated coffee, semiconductors, stainless steel, lasers, and many more.
  • Codes text entries in a format that utilizes outline designations carried through to the accompanying illustrations for easy reference.
  • Groups related processes together and covers sequential operation in order.
  • Includes little or no mathematics.

804 Pages
Published: June, 2007

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The book is in two sections: (I), the Process Section, in which common manufacturing processes in 17 key industries are described, and (11), the Products, Components and Materials Section, which explains how many of these are made.

Section I explains how each manufacturing process works, detailing what happens to the materials or workpieces that are being processed. Usually, these explanations are in general terms as they are not limited to a particular component or material. However, the description also identifies the normal components or materials to which the process applies.

Section I1 deals with specific products, components, and materials, outlining the manufacturing sequence and processes used for making each. It often refers the reader, using the designation of any applicable text entry, to where more detailed descriptions of the operations mentioned can be found in the book. This is done by showing, in parenthesis, the chapter and text entry designation from Section I, where the basic operation is described. For example, in the description of the manufacture of a metal part that requires case-hardening heat treatment, the description may include “(8G3b)” to tell the reader that the case-hardening heat treatment used on the part is described at greater length in entry G3b of Chapter 8.

The handbook text in Section I is organized in a typical outline structure to aid the reader in finding relevant information easily. Related processes are grouped together and sequential operations are covered in sequence when possible. Major topics are given an upper-case letter designation such as A, B, C, etc. Important sub-topics are designated with the capital letter and a number (for example, Al, B1, C1, etc.) Sub headings under these topics are indicated by adding a lower-case letter to the designation (e.g., Ala, Alb, Alc, etc.) The descriptions of further process variations may be given designations such Alal, Ala2, Ala3, etc. For example, Chapter 1 is devoted to metal casting processes; section B in Chapter 1 covers sand-mold casting methods; entry B5 describes methods of making sand molds, B5e describes those methods that utilize a machine for the operation, and B5el describes one specific machine method, the jolt-squeeze method.

For ease of reference, the same designations used to identify text entries are also used to identify accompanying illustrations. For example, Figure 9B2 illustrates the process described in text entry B2 in Chapter 9. Figure 1B5el illustrates the jolt-squeeze machine described in entry B5el of Chapter 1. Section I1 is simply arranged in alphabetical order by the name of the product, component, or material whose manufacturing method is described. Section I1 includes descriptions of manufacturing processes used in making each product, component, or material listed, though sometimes, if the process for that item has already been described in Section I, the Section I1 entry simply refers to the applicable entry in Section I. Thus, for the manufacture of gasoline, whose manufacturing process is described under “Petroleum Processing” in Chapter 11, the listing in Section I1 simply refers to ( 1 1 HtPetroleum Refining and Processing-where gasoline manufacture is described in considerable detail.



Section I: Manufacturing Processes

  • Casting Processes
  • Metal Forming Processes
  • Machining Processes
  • Processes for Plastics
  • Glass and Ceramic Processes
  • Woodworking Processes
  • Assembly and Fusion (or Joining) Processes
  • Finishing Processes (including Heat Treating)
  • Paper, Fiber, and Printing Processes
  • Textile Processes
  • Chemical Processes
  • Food Processes
  • Processes for Electronic Products
  • Advanced Manufacturing Methods

Section II: How Products, Components and Materials Are Made

This section identifies the materials used, and describes the operation sequence and manufacturing methods for many important products, components and materials. Notable products such as aircraft, automobiles, computers, musical instruments, eyeglasses, firearms, jewelry, perfume and shoes are among those included. Components such as lasers, integrated circuits, metal cans, cartons, auto airbags, gears, jet engines, locks, electric motors, solar cells and superconductors are covered. This section also describes the manufacture of many foods including cereals, cheese, spices, and beverages (including alcoholic types), and materials such as plastics, metals and alloys, and important chemicals.

Detailed TOC

A. Melting Metal for Casting
Al. cupola melting
A2. electric arc melting
A3. crucible melting
A4. air furnace (reverbatory) melting
AS. induction melting (high frequency
and low frequency)
A6. open-hearth melting
A7. pouring
B. Sand-mold Casting
B1. green sand casting
BZ. dry sand casting
B3. other sand-mold casting processes
B2a. skin-dried casting
B3a. shell mold casting
B3b. lost foam casting
B3c. magnetic molding
B3d. V-process casting (vacuum molding)
B3e. cement-sand molding
B3f. loam molding
B3g. flaskless mold casting
B3h. Antioch process
B4a. green sand cores
B4b. core blowing
B4c. core baking
B4d. oil-oxygen process
B4e. furan no-bake core process
B4f. carbon-dioxide process
B4g. shell process for cores
B5a. ramming
B5b. bench molding
B5c. floor molding
B5d. pit molding
B5e. machine methods
B5. sand mold methods
B5el. jolt-squeeze methods
B5eZ. sand slinging
B5e3. rap-jolt machines
B5e4. match-plate molding
B6. sand processing
B6a. sand mulling
B6b. reclamation of sand
B6bl. mechanical reclamation
B6bZ. thermal reclamation
B6b3. wet reclamation
B6c. metal separation from sand
B6d. cooling of sand
B7. pattern making
B8. post-molding operations
B8a. shakeout
B8b. core knockout
B8c. blast cleaning
B8d. tumble cleaning
B8e. wire brush cleaning
B8g. snagging
C. Other Expendable Mold Processes
C1. ceramic mold casting
CZ. ceramic-shell process
C3. Shaw process
C4. Unicast process
C5. plaster mold casting
D. Permanent Mold Processes
D1. permanent mold casting
DZ. low pressure permanent
mold casting
D3. slush casting
D4. pressed casting
D5. vacuum casting
E. Centrifugal Casting
El. true centrifugal casting
E2. semicentrifugal casting
E3. centrifuged casting
G3. spring forming
G4. Turk's-head rolling of wire
H. "bbing and Section Operations
H1. tube spinning
Hla. forward tube spinning
Hlb. backward tube spinning
H2. tube and section bending
H2a. draw bending
H2b. compression bending
H a . ram-and-press bending
H2d. stretch bending
H2e. wrinkle bending
H2f. roll bending
H2g. roll extrusion bending
H2h. bulging, mechanical
H2i. bulging, hydraulic
I. Non-sheet Forming Operations
11. shearing of bars and other non-flat shapes
12. cold heading
13. thread rolling
14. impactkold extrusion
other methods of bulging tubing
I4a. backwards extrusion
I4b. forward extrusion
I&. combined extrusion
J. High-energy-rate Forming Methods
J1. explosive forming
52. combustible gas forming
53. electromagnetic forming (EMF)
54. spark-discharge forming
55. electrohydraulic forming
56. pneumatic-mechanical forming
57. peen forming
K. Straightening
K1. manual straightening
K2. press straightening
K3. parallel roll straightening
K4. rotary straightening
K5. epicyclic straightening
K6. stretch straightening
L. Other Forming Processes
L1. powder metallurgy (Phl) processes
Lla. metal powder manufacture
Llb. powder blending and mixing
Llc. pressing (compacting)
Lld. sintering
Lle. repressing
Llf. secondary operations
Llg. powder metal forging
(also known as magnetic pulse forming)
(electrospark forming)
L2. electroforming
L3. metal injection molding (MIM)
Chapter &Machining Processes
Al. lathe operations (general description)
Lathe and Other Turning Operations
Ala. turning
Alb. form turning
Alc. tracer turning
Ald. facing
Ale. grooving
Alf. knurling
Alg. cutting off (parting)
lathes and other turning machines
A2a. engine lathes
A2b. turret lathes
A2c. screw machines
Akl. single spindle screw machines
A2c2. Swiss-type screw machines
AM. multiple spindle screw machines
A2d. chucking machines
A2e. turning centers
Round-hole-making Methods
dri I I ing
B5a. jig boring
B5b. horizontal boring mills
B5c. vertical boring mills
gun drilling
multiple-spindle drilling
Grinding and Abrasive Machining
cylindrical grinding
Cla. center-type cylindrical grinding
Clb. centerless grinding
Clbl. through-feed centerless grinding
Clb2. infeed centerless grinding
Clb3. end-feed centerless grinding
internal grinding
C2a. internal centerless grinding
surface grinding
C3a. horizontal spindle
C3b. vertical spindle surface grinding
C3c. creep-feed grinding
jig grinding
C4a. tool post grinding
low-stress grinding
plunge grinding
disc grinding
abrasive belt grinding
abrasive jet machining
surface grinding
C10. abrasive flow machining (AFM)
C11. ultrasonic machining
D. Milling
D1. face milling
D2. peripheral milling
D3. end milling
D4. slab milling
D5. form milling
D6. gang milling
D7. straddle milling
D8. fly cutter milling
D9. pin routing
D10. spotfacing
Screw Threads
hand-die external threading
internal thread tapping
single-point screw-thread cutting
thread cutting die heads
thread milling
thread grinding
thread rolling
cold-form tapping of internal threads
internal broaching
external broaching
pot broaching
circular sawing
band sawing
contour sawing
abrasive sawing
diamond-edge sawing
friction sawing
Flame Cutting (Thermal Cutting)
oxy-fuel gas cutting (OFC)
metal powder cutting (POC)
chemical flux cutting (FOC)
arc cutting
H4a. plasma-arc cutting (PAC)
H4b. air-carbn arc cutting and grooving
H4c. oxygen lance cutting (LOC)
H4d. gas metal arc cutting
H4e. gas tungsten arc cutting
H4f. shielded metal arc cutting
H4g. carbon arc cutting
laser cutting
Electrical Machining Processes
electrical discharge machining or EDM
Ila. ramEDM
Ilb. wire EDM
Ilc. electrical discharge grinding (EDG)
electrochemical machining (ECM)
I2a. electrochemical grinding (ECG)
I2b. electrochemical turning (ECT)
electrochemical discharge grinding (ECDG)
electrochemical honing (ECH)
electro etching
Finish Machining Operations
roller burnishing
abrasive flow debumng
abrasive jet debumng
barrel tumbling
chemical debumng
electropolish deburring
electrochemical debumng
liquid hone debumng
manual debumng
K9. thermal energy debuning
K10. ultrasonic debumng
K11. vibratory debumng
K12. water-jet debumng
K13. centrifugal barrel tumbling
K14. spindle finishing
K15. powered brush deburring
K16. abrasive belt sanding
K17. laser debumng
Kl8. plasma glow deburring
K19. skiving
K20. edge rolling
K21. burnish debuning
K22. edge coining
K23. robotic debumng
K24. CNC machining center deburring
K25. cryogenic deflashing
bumng (rotary filing)
Water Jet Machining (Hydrodynamic Machining)
abrasive water jet machining (AWJ)
Electron Beam Machining (EBM)
Laser Beam Machining
laser-assisted hot machining (LAM)
Chemical Machining
chemical milling
chemical engraving
chemical blanking
photochemical blanking
Machining Centers
turning centers
multiple operation machines
Numerical and Computer Control
NC, numerical control
computer numerical control (CNC)
U2a. DNC (direct numerical control)
programmable controllers
digital readouts in machining
automatic tracing
robots and robotic operations
High-speed Machining
Special Purpose Machines
Transfer Lines
Chapter &Processes for Plastics
How Plastics Are Made
definition - Plastics
polymerization reactions
A2a. addition polymerization
A2b. condensation polymerization
polymerization methods
A3a. bulk polymerization
A3b. solution polymerization
A3c. suspension polymerization
A3d. emulsion polymerization
A3e. gas-phase polymerization
compounding plastics
A4a. mixing by tumbling
A4b. intensive dry mixing
A4c. internal intensive batch mixing
A4d. continuous mixing
A&. single screw extruders
A4f. compounder-extruder mixing
A4g. twin screw extruder mixing
pelletizing and dicing of plastics
ASa. mixing and dicing with two-roll mills
A5b. strand pelletizers
A5c. underwater pelletizing
Compression and Transfer Molding
compression molding
Bla. automatic compression molding
transfer molding
B2a. plunger molding
B2b. screw transfer molding
cold molding
Injection Molding
conventional injection molding
Cla. hot runner molding
(heated runnerless molding)
injection molding of thermosetting plastics
structural foam molding processes
C3a. low-pressure injection molding
of structural foam plastics
C3b. reaction injection molding
C3c. high-pressure injection molding
of structural foam plastics
C3d. gas counterpressure molding
C3e. co-injection or sandwich molding
C3f. gas-assisted injection molding
C3g. casting of structural foam plastics
C3h. extrusion of structural foam plastics
C3i. slabstock foam process
expanded polystyrene foam processes
C4a. pre-expansion of EPS beads
C4b. shape molding of EPS beads
C4c. block molding of EPS
C4d. expanded polyolefin foam process
two-color injection molding
insert molding
Thermoforming (Vacuum Forming)
straight vacuum forming
pressure forming
drape vacuum forming
plug-assist forming
vacuum snap-back forming
slip-ring forming (slip forming)
matched mold forming
pressure-bubble plug-assist forming (also called
reverse-draw plug-assist forming, pressure-bubble
plug-assist forming, billow-up plug-assist forming
or reverse-draw with plug assist)
pressure-bubble vacuum-snapback forming or billow-up vacuum snap-back forming
D10. trapped sheet, contact heat, pressure forming
D11. air-slip forming
D12. free forming (free blowing)
D13. dual sheet forming (twin sheet forming)
D14. solid phase pressure forming
E. Rotational Molding
F. Blow Molding
F1. extrusion blow molding
F2. injection blow molding
F3. In stretch blow molding
F4. multilayer blow molding
F5. dip blow molding
F6. other blow molding processes
G. Processes for Reinforced
Thermosetting Plastics
G1. hand lay-up
G2. spray-up
G3. vacuum-bag molding
G4. pressure-bag molding
G5. autoclave molding
G6. centrifugal casting
G7. Filament winding
G8. continuous laminating
G8a. continuous laminating with
a thermosetting plastic
G8b. continuous laminating with a thermoplastic
G9. matched metal mold forming (cold stamping)
(310. matched metal mold forming of reinforced
thermosetting material
G11. pultrusion
G12. pulforming
G13. resin transfer molding (RTM)
(liquid resin molding)
G14. other processes for reinforced
thermosetting plastics
H. Casting of Plastics
H1. casting of sheet
Hla. cell casting of sheet
Hlb. continuous casting of sheet
H2. casting structural foam parts
H3. casting nylon parts
H4. casting acrylic parts
H5. encapsulation and potting
I. Plastics Extrusion
11. profile extrusion
12. coextrusion (dual extrusion)
13. foam extrusion
14. extrusion coating and laminating
I4a. wire coating
15. extrusion of film and sheet
I5a. blown film extrusion
I5b. cast film extrusion
16. operations after extruding
J. Calendering
K. Vinyl Dispersion Processes
K1. spread coating
Kla. knife coating (knife-over-roll coating)
Klb. roll coating
K2. dip coating (hot dipping) and dip molding
K2a. cold dipping
slush molding
cavity, in-place and low-pressure molding
strand coating, using plastisols and organisols
spray coating
extrusion of plastisol
Welding and Adhesive Bonding of Plastics
friction or spin welding
hot plate welding
vibration welding
ultrasonic welding and sealing
ultrasonic spot welding
ultrasonic film and fabric welding
adhesive bonding of plastics
L7a. solvent cementing of plastics
L7b. pretreatment of plastic surfaces for bonding
L7c. electromagnetic adhesive bonding
induction welding
radio frequency sealing (dielectric sealing)
thermal sealing (heat sealing) of sheet
hot gas welding
Surface Finishing and Decorating
Processes for Plastics
surface treatments for plastic parts
Mla. washing and cleaning
Mlb. chemical etching
Mlc. corona discharge
Mld. flame treatment
Mle. plasma treatment
hot stamping
M2a. transfer coating (hot transfer coating)
M3a. spray and wipe
M3b. powder painting of plastics
Mk. manufacture of powder coatings
M k l . dry blending
Mk2. melt mixing
M3c3. solution method
decorating plastic parts with processes
that are also common to non-plastics
M4a. electroplating of plastics
in-mold decorating
sheet and film embossing
Other Plastics Processes
insert assembly
Nla. molding-in inserts
Nlb. ultrasonic insertion
Nlc. expansion installation
Nld. threaded hole installation
Nle. press insertion
Nlf. self tapping
Nlg. cemented installation
Nlh. hot insertion
other mechanical assembly of plastic parts
granulating plastics
coloring and blending of plastics
drying of plastics
machining of plastics
trimming and die cutting of plastics
radiation processing
NSa. non-ionizing radiation processing
N9. vacuum handling and loading of plastic materials
N10. robotic handling
N11. deflashing
N12. reel-to-reel molding (continuous strip molding)
0. Rubber and Elastomers
01. natural rubber
02. rubber, synthetic
03. rubber compounding
04. rubber fabrication methods
Chapter 5-Glass and Ceramics
A. GlassProcesses
Al. basic glassmaking
Ala. raw materials
Alb. batching
Alc. melting
A2a. pressing
A2b. blowing
Alal. coloring materials
A2. primary forming processes
A2bl. manual blowing
A2b2. lampworking (lamp blowing,
and scientific glass blowing)
A2b3. machine blowing
A2b3a. gob feeding machine
A2b3b. Owens bottle machine
A2b3c. the blow-blow process
A2b3d. the press-blow process
A2b3e. the rotary-mold (paste mc
A2b3f. ribbon machine blowing
(the suck-blow process)
A&. glass tubing manufacture
AM. centrifugal casting
A3a. manual methods
A3b. drawing sheet glass (the
Fourcault process)
Ak. drawing sheet glass (the Colburn
or Libby-Owens process)
A3d. drawing sheet glass
(the Pittsburgh process)
A3e. plate glass manufacture
A3f. float glass process
A3g. rolling (casting) flat glass
A4. heat and chemical treating operations
A4a. annealing
A4b. tempering
A4c. chemical toughening
AS. secondary, finishing and decorating operations
A5a. bending and sagging
A5b. grinding
A5c. polishing
A5d. fusion sealing
A5e. grit blasting
acid etching
decorating with vitrifiable colors
(vitreous enamels)
metallic coating
organic decorating
silk screening (screen printing)
glass fiber manufacturing ~
A6a. mechanical drawing of continuous fibers
A6b. steam blowing
A&. flame blowing (superfine process)
A6d. rotary wool forming process
A&. methods for production of traditional
optical glass fibers
A6f. methods for production of optical
communications fibers
manufacture of other types of glass
A7a. glass ceramics manufacture
A7b. photosensitive glass manufacture
A7c. cellular glass (foam glass) manufacture
A7d. glass microsphere manufacture
powdered glass processes
A8a. dry pressing and sintering
ASb. slip casting of glass
A&. fritted filter manufacture
Ceramics Processes
the nature of ceramics
ceramic materials
ceramics operation sequence
ceramic material preparation
B4a. material preparation for advanced ceramics
BSa. isostatic pressing
injection molding
slip casting of ceramics
BSa. pressure casting
B10. roll compaction
B11. tape casting
B12. throwing
B13. drying
B13a. partial in-process drying
B13b. final drying
B13c. microwave drying (also called dielectric
or radio frequency drying)
B14. machining and grinding
BIS. glazing
B16. sintering (firing)
B17. hot pressing
B17a. hot isostatic pressing (HIP)
Chapter &Woodworking Processes
A. Lumber Making Including
Saw Mill Operations
Al. debarking
A2. headsaw operation (breakdown sawing)
plain sawing of boards
quarter sawing
rift sawing
trimming (cutting to length)
inspecting and grading boards
drying (seasoning)
A9a. airdrying
A9b. kiln drying
A9c. radio frequency drying
Making Wooden Components
cutting boards to size
Bla. ripping
Blb. cutting to length (crosscutting)
surfacing with planers and jointers
B2a. planing (surfacing)
B2b. jointing
contour (curved line) sawing
drilling and boring
shaping and routing
other form, and special cutting and
joint-making operations
B7a. computer-controlled routering
B7b. laser machining of wooden parts
B7c. dedicated special machines and
multi-operation machines
filing and sanding
Making Wood Joints
butt joints
rabbet joints
dado and groove joints
tongue-and-groove joints
mortise and tenon joints
dovetail joints
dowelled and biscuit (joining plate)
lap (halved and bridle), scarf
and bevelled joints
Making Bent Wooden Components
wet bending
making curved laminations
kerf bending
Assembly and Fastening Wood Products
clamps and fixtures
mechanical fastening
adhesive bonding
Assembling veneer and inlaid surfaces
Manufacture of Plywood and Other
Panel Materials
making veneer
making plywood
making wafer board (chipboard)
making oriented strand board
making particle board
making fiberboard
making engineered lumber, prefabricated
wooden beams and joists
making rigid plastic laminates
(high pressure laminates)
making synthetic lumber (composite lumber)
and components from plastics
Wood Finishing
preparing the surface for finishing
varnishing, lacquering and painting
installing webbing
installing springs
installing padding and cushioning
installing covering
cushions, channeling and tufting
Chapter 7-Assembly and Fusion (or Joining) Processes
Soldering and Brazing
solder application methods
Ala. wire or rod soldering
Alb. preform soldering
Alc. solder paste soldering
Ald. Dip soldering (DS)
Ale. wave soldering
Alf. drag soldering
Alg. ultrasonic soldering
workpiece heating methods:
A2a. with soldering iron (INS)
A2b. with gas torch
A2c. oven or furnace heating
AM. selective infrared heating
A%. vapor-phase heating
A2f. Resistance heating (RS)
A2g. laser heating
A2h. induction heating
A2i. hot gas
application of tiller metal
torch brazing
furnace brazing
induction brazing (IB)
dip brazing
salt bath brazing
Resistance brazing (RB)
diffusion brazing
Arc welding
Albl. how solder preforms are made
Shielded-Metal Arc (SMAW)
or Stick Welding
Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)
Flux-cored arc welding (FCAW)
Gas-metal arc welding (GMAW)
Gas-tungsten arc welding GTAW)
Plasma arc welding (PAW)
Electroslag welding (ESW)
induction welding (electromagnetic
Oxyfuel gas welding (OFW)
Electron beam welding (EBW)
Laser-beam welding (LBW)
Resistance welding
C6a. Spot welding (RSW)
C6b. Seam welding (RSEW)
C6c. projection welding (RPW)
stitch welding
stud welding
Friction welding (FRW)
Flash welding (FW)
welding) 305
C11. percussive welding or percussion
C12. Thermit welding (TW)
C13. Solid-state welding, (SSW) welding
C13a. forge welding
C13b. forge-seam welding
C13c. cold welding
C13d. metal cladding
C13e. Roll welding (roll bonding) (ROW)
C13f. Explosive welding (EXW)
C13g. diffusion welding
(diffusion bonding)
C13h. ultrasonic welding (of metals)
C13i. Friction stir welding (FSW)
Adhesive Bonding
surface preparation methods for
adhesive bonding
Dla. cleaning
Dlb. surface roughening
Dlc. surface ionization pretreatment
adhesive application methods
D2a. brush, spray, dipping, roller
or spatula application
D2b. dry film application
D2c. hot melt adhesives application
DM. pressure sensitive and contact
adhesive application
D2e. pump/pressure application
of solid adhesives
joint assembly methods
curing methods
Welding of Plastics
Mechanical Assembly Processes
bench assembly
assembly lines
automatic assembly
F3a. parts feeding equipment
F3b. high speed assembly with dedicated
F3c. robotic assembly
mechanical fastening methods
F4a. assembly with threaded fasteners
F4b. riveting
F4c. stitchinghtapling
F4d. snap fit fastening
F4f. staking, seaming and crimping
Chapter &Finishing Processes
(including Heat Treating) 329 El. anodizing
Cleaning Processes
mechanical cleaning processes
Ala. brushing
Alb. abrasive blasting
Albl. wet blast cleaning
Alb2. dry blast cleaning
Alc. steam jet cleaning
Ald. tumbling
chemical cleaning processes
A2a. solvent cleaning
A2al. immersion cleaning
A2a2. spray degreasing
A2a3. vapor degreasing
A2b. ultrasonic cleaning
A&. emulsion cleaning
AM. alkaline cleaning
A&. acid cleaning
A2f. pickling
A2g. salt bath cleaning
electrochemical cleaning processes
A3a. electrolytic cleaning
A3b. electrolytic pickling
Polishing Processes
conventional polishing
Bla. buffing
barrel polishing (tumbling)
Plating Processes
conventional electroplating
electroless plating
barrel plating
mechanical plating
brush plating
electroplating of plastics
Painting (Organic Finishing)
roller coating
curtain coating
dip painting
flow coating
spray painting
Ma. air atomized spray
D6b. airless spray
electrostatic painting
D7a. with centrifugal spraying head
powdered paint coating
D8a. electrostatic spray powder coating
D8b. fluidized bed powder coating
D8c. electrostatic fluidized bed powder coating
D8d. friction static spraying
D8e. flame spraying of powdered paint electrocoating (also referred to as electropainting, electrophoresis, electrophoretic coating or electrodeposition of paint)
Ela. hardcoat anodizing
chromate conversion coatings
black oxide coating
Other Coatings
porcelain enameling
hot dip coating (galvanizing)
vacuum metalizing
F3a. sputtering
F3b. chemical vapor deposition (CVD)
F3bl. plasma-enhanced (or plasma-assiste
chemical vapor deposition
F3c. physical vapor deposition (PVD)
F3d. ion implantation
thermal spray coating
F4a. wire metalizing
F4b. powder spraying
F4c. detonation gun spraying
F4d. plasma arc spraying
clad metals
Heat Treating of Metals
annealing processes for steel
G2a. full annealing
G2b. isothermal annealing
Gk. spherodizing
G2d. stress relieving
G2e. normalizing
G2f. tempering
G2g. process annealing
hardening processes for steel
G3a. surface hardening
F4al. electric arc wire metalizing
F4dl. transferred plasma-arc spraying
high velocity oxy-flame coating (HVOF)
G3al. flame hardening
G3a2. induction hardening
G3a3. laser-beam hardening
G3a4. electron-beam hardening
G3aS. other surface heating methods
for hardening
G3b. case hardening
G3bl. carbunzing
G3bla. pack carburization
G3blb. liquid carburization
G3blc. gas carburization
G3b2. carbonitriding
G3b3. cyanidizing
G3b4. nitriding
G3bS. liquid nitriding
G3c. through hardening
G3d. martempering
G3e. austempering
solution treatinglprecipitation hardening (aging or age hardening)
heat treating processes for non-ferrous metals
G5a. Aluminum alloys
G5b. copper and copper alloys
G5c. magnesium alloys
G5d. nickel and nickel alloys
G5e. titanium and titanium alloys
Shot Peening
Product Marking Methods
manual marking
stamp indented marking
etching (chemical etching)
I4a. pantograph engraving
laser marking and engraving
17a. pad printing
I7b. screen printing (silk screening) branding
Manufacture of Various Paper Grades
bond paper
sanitary papers
haft paper
vulcanized fiber
relief or letterpress printing
Dla. typesetting for letterpress printing
Dlb. flexographic printing
planographic printing
D2a. lithography and offset lithography
D2b. collotype (collography)
intaglio printing
D3a. gravure printing
D3b. making gravure plates
stencil and screen printing (porous printing)
Ma. stencil printing
decal marking 357 D4b. screen printing (serigraphy)
110. casting and molding
I l l . embossing and coining
112. nameplates, labels and tags
113. hot stamping
114. dyeing
115. flocking
Chapter 9-Paper, Fiber and Printing Processes
A. Definition, Paper
B. Paper-making Processes
B1. raw materials
B2. paper making from wood (by machine)
B2a. debarking of wood logs
B2b. pulping of wood
B2bl. mechanical pulping of wood
B2b2. chemical pulping of wood
B2b3. semi-chemical pulping of wood
B2c. refining
B2d. removing foreign material
B2e. bleaching and washing
B2f. beating
B2g. making paper from pulp
B2gl. Fourdrinier and cylindrical
paper-making machines
B2h. finishing (converting)
B2hl. extrusion coating and
B2h2. water dispersion coating
B2h3. sizing
B2h4. filling
laminating of paper
B3. paper making from rags and other textile fibers
B4. paper making from synthetic fibers
B5. paper making from waste paper (paper recycling)
B5a. waste paper processed with de-inking
B5b. waste paper processed without
Chapter 10-Textile Processes
Textile Fibers
natural fibers
manufactured and synthetic fibers
Yarn Making (Spinning)
picking (including opening and blending)
drawing (drafting), (re-blending)
spinning (twisting)
B6. spinning synthetic fibers
C. Weaving
C1. Jacquard loom weaving
C2. automatic bobbin changing
C3. shuttle-less looms
C4. pile weaving
D. Knitting
D1. weft or filling knitting
Non-woven Fabrics
finishing to improve appearance
F3a. napping
F3b. shearing
F3c. brushing
F3d. beetling
F3e. decating
F3f. calendering
F3g. creping
F3h. embossing
F3i. optical brightening
F3j. tentering
F3k. crabbing
F3I. flocking
finishing to improve feel (tactile properties)
F4a. sizing (stiffening)
F4b. weighting
F4c. fulling, (felting or milling)
F4d. softening
finishing to improve performance
F5a. anti-shrinkage treatment
F5b. durable press (permanent press)
(wash and wear)
F5c. antistatic treatment
F5d. treatment for soil and stain
release properties
F5e. water repelling and water proofing
F5f. other treatments
Gla. stock dyeing
Glb. top dyeing
Glc. yam dyeing
Gld. piece dyeing
Gle. cross dyeing
Glf. solution pigmenting (dope dyeing)
G2a. block printing
G2b. engraved printing (intaglio printing)
G2c. discharge printing
G2d. heat-transfer printing
G2e. stencil and screen printing
G2f. resist printing
G2g. warp printing
G2h. pigment printing
Manufacture of Clothing and Other
Sewn Products (“Needle Trades”)
cutting (chopping or knifing)
H4a. stitch-less joining (seam bonding)
Of the fabric
G2bl. duplex printing (heat sealing)
folding, labeling, wrapping/packing
Rug and Carpet Making
weaving rugs and carpets
tufting rugs
making knitted rugs
making needlepunch carpets
making hooked rugs
16. making braided rugs
17. making oriental rugs
18. making needlepoint rugs
Chapter 11-Chemical Processes
A. Batch Processes in General
B. Continuous Processes in Genkral
C. Separation Processes
C1. distillation
Cla. fractional distillation (rectification,
fractionation or enrichment)
Clb. vacuum distillation
Clc. flash distillation (equilibrium
Cld. multiple-effect distillation
(multistage flash evaporation)
Cle. steam distillation
Clf. sublimation
Clg. destructive distillation
C2. absorption-stripping
C3. extraction and leaching
C4. expression
C5. crystallization
C6. precipitation
C7. fluid-particle separation
C7a. filtration
C7b. types of filters
C7c. membrane separation (including
ultra filtration)
C7d. sedimentation
C7e. centrifugation
C7f. bag filtering
C7g. evaporation
C7h. scrubbers - or wet collectors
C8. separation of solids
C8a. screening (sieving)
C8b. flotation
C8c. dense-media separation
C8d. magnetic separation
C8e. electrostatic separation
C9. adsorption and ion exchange
C10. electrolytic processes (electrolysis)
C11. electro thermal processes
C12. drying
C7el. cyclone separation, cycloning
C12a. spray drying liquid materials
Cl2b. freeze drying
D. Size Reduction
D1. crushing
D2. secondary crushing
D3. pulverizing
E. Size Enlargement
Mixing Methods
mixing gases with gases
mixing gases with liquids
mixing liquids with liquids
liquids-solids mixing
solids mixing
Petroleum Refining and Petrochemicals
Hla. fractional distillation of crude petroleum
Hlb. vacuum distillation of petroleum fractions
Hlc. absorptiodstripping of petroleum factions
Hld. solvent extraction
Hle. crystallization of petroleum fraction
H2. conversion
H2a. cracking
H2al. thermal cracking
H2a2. catalytic cracking
H2b. polymerization
H2c. alkylation
H2d. reforming
H3. chemical and other treatments
H3a. sulfur removal (hydrogen treatment)
H3b. additive addition
H3c. blending
I. Chemical Reactions
11. gas-phase reactions
12. gashquid reactions
13. liquidlliquid reactions
14. gaslliquid/solid reactions
15. solids/solids and solids/gas reactions
16. reactions with catalysts
J. Heat-transfer Methods
J2. cooling with air
K1. recovery/refining processes
heat exchange for solid materials
Extracting and Recovering Metals from Ores
Kla. hydro metallurgy
Klal. precipitation in hydro metallurgy
Klb. pyrometallurgy processes
Klbl. roasting
Klb2. smelting
Klc. electrometallurgy
Klcl. electrowinning (electrolytic deposition)
Klc2. electrorefinning
K2. other chemical processes
K3. alloying processes
L. Esterification
Chapter 12-Food Processes
A. Cleaning Raw Food Materials
B. Sorting and Grading of Foods
C. Size Reduction
C1. roll crushing
hammer milling
ball milling (tumble milling)
disc attrition milling
milling grain
C5a. post-milling treatments
C5al. altering protein content
C5a2. bleaching flour
C5a3. enriching flour
Separation Processes
freeze concentration
reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration
Thermal Processing of Foods
heat sterilization
aseptic processing
Dehydration and Drying
vacuum drying
spray drying
drum drying
fluidized-bed drying
freeze drying (freeze dehydration)
Cooling for Preservation
freezing food
Ila. freezing with refrigerated air
Ilc. indirect-contact freezing
Other Operations
extrusion of foods
food additives
sugar curing/sugar addition
candying and glazing
high-intensity pulsed electric field
processing (PEF)
high pressure processing (or ultra-high
pressure processing)
Meat Packing
freezing with a liquid medium
M. Other Packaging
N. Storage
01. equipment rinsing
02. equipment cleaning
03. equipment sanitizing
04. other factors
Food Equipment Cleaning and Sanitizing
Chapter 13-Processes
for Electronic Products
A. Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs)
Al. making bare printed circuit boards
Ala. resists and photoresists
Alb. subtractive process for making
wiring patterns on the board
Alc. additive method
Ald. making photo masters and masks
Ale. screen printing the masks
Alf. stripping resists from printed
circuit boards
A2a. hole making in boards
A2b. contact finger plating
A%. solder fusing
AM. solder masks
A&. separating boards (depanelling)
A2f. silkscreen identification
A3. multilayer boards
A4. making flexible printed circuit boards
B. Wiring and Populating Boards
B1. populating boards with through-hole
B2. assembling surface mounted components
A2. ' other board operations
B2a. dispensing adhesives
B2b. using solder paste
B2bl. syringe dispensing of solder paste
(pressure dispensing)
B2b2. pin transfer dispensing
of solder paste
B2b3. screen printing of solder paste
B2b4. stencil dispensing of solder paste
B2b5. submerged disk dispensing
of solder paste
B2b6. dip coating of solder paste
B2b7. roller coating of solder paste
B3. cleaning prior to soldering
B4. prebaking before soldering
C. Soldering Processes
C1. flux application
B2c. using solder preforms
Cla. dip fluxing
Clb. brush application of flux
Clc. foam flux application
Cld. spray application of flux
Cle. wave fluxing
Clf. roller fluxing
Clg. cored solder fluxing
Clgl. making flux cored wire solder
dip soldering
drag soldering
wave soldering
reflow methods
C6a. oven heating for reflow
C6b. vapor-phase soldering
C6c. laser soldering
hot gas soldering
soldering iron soldering
using lead-free solders
Cleaning After Soldering
solvent cleaning
water washing
semi-aqueous cleaning
Making Solder Paste
making solder powder by gas atomizal
spinning disk powder making
ultrasonic method of powder making
screen classification of powder
air classification of powder
inspection of powder
mixing solder paste
inspection of paste
Ball Grid Arrays
Fluxes for Electronics
Quality Control and Inspection Operations
visual inspection of joints
incoming inspection
solderability testing
Repair and Touch-up
Integrated Circuits (10)
(Microcircuits or Chips)
material preparation - making
ultra-pure silicon
making a single crystal of silicon
K2a. slicing into wafers
K2b. polishing the wafers
K2c. other wafer preparation operations
wafer fab
K3a. layering
K3al. oxidation of silicon
K3a2. nitridation
K3a3. chemical vapor deposition (CVD)
K3a4. vacuum deposition
K3a5. sputtering
K3a6. adding thick films
K3a7. adding protective layers
K3bl. lithography
K3a3a. epitaxy
K3b. patterning
K3bla. making masks
K3blb. applying resist
K3b2. etching
K3b2a. wet etching with liquid
etchants (wet chemical

K3b2b. dry etching 564
K3b2bl. plasma etching 564
K3b2b2. ion beam etching
(sputter etching or
ion milling) 564
K3b2b3. reactive ion
etching (RIE) 565
K3b3. stripping photoresist from wafers 565
K3c. doping (dopant defusion) 566
K3d. heat treating 568
K3dl. annealing 568
K3d2. alloying 568
K4. wafer testing and sorting 568
K5. packaging (assembly) of chips 569
K5a. backside preparation 570
K5b. dicing (die separation) 570
K5c. chip insertion and fastening
to the package 570
K5d. wire bonding 570
K5e. closing and sealing the package 57 1
KSf. lead plating and trimming 57 I
K5g. marking and final testing 57 1
K6. other methods of connecting the integrated
circuit to the board 573
K6a. chip on board (COB) technology 573
K6b. conductive adhesive connections 573
K6c. tape automated bonding (TAB) 573
K6d. flip-chips 574
L1. making resistors 575
L. Making Discrete &vices 575
L2. making capacitors 576
L3. making inductors (chokes, choke coils) 578
L4. making transformers 578
L5. making discrete transistors and diodes 582
M. Conformal Coatings 582
N. Other Chip Configurations 582
N1. multiple integrated circuit packages (multichip
devices, assemblies, modules [MCM], system
in a package (SIP) or packages) 582
Chapter 14-Advanced
Manufacturing Methods
A. Rapid Prototyping (RP) Methods
Al. initial step: computer aided design
A2. the STL file
A3. the SLI file
A4. liquid-based rapid prototyping systems
A4a. the stereolithography (SLA) system
A4b. QuickCast
A4c. solid ground curing (SGC)
A4d. solid creation system (SCS)
A4e. solid object ultraviolet-laser
printer (SOUP)
A4f. soliform System
A4g. MEIKO system
A4h. E-Darts system
K3b2b. dry etching 564
K3b2bl. plasma etching 564
K3b2b2. ion beam etching
(sputter etching or
ion milling) 564
K3b2b3. reactive ion
etching (RIE) 565
K3b3. stripping photoresist from wafers 565
K3c. doping (dopant defusion) 566
K3d. heat treating 568
K3dl. annealing 568
K3d2. alloying 568
K4. wafer testing and sorting 568
K5. packaging (assembly) of chips 569
K5a. backside preparation 570
K5b. dicing (die separation) 570
K5c. chip insertion and fastening
to the package 570
K5d. wire bonding 570
K5e. closing and sealing the package 57 1
KSf. lead plating and trimming 57 I
K5g. marking and final testing 57 1
K6. other methods of connecting the integrated
circuit to the board 573
K6a. chip on board (COB) technology 573
K6b. conductive adhesive connections 573
K6c. tape automated bonding (TAB) 573
K6d. flip-chips 574
L1. making resistors 575
L. Making Discrete &vices 575
L2. making capacitors 576
L3. making inductors (chokes, choke coils) 578
L4. making transformers 578
L5. making discrete transistors and diodes 582
M. Conformal Coatings 582
N. Other Chip Configurations 582
N1. multiple integrated circuit packages (multichip
devices, assemblies, modules [MCM], system
in a package (SIP) or packages) 582
Chapter 14-Advanced
Manufacturing Methods
A. Rapid Prototyping (RP) Methods
Al. initial step: computer aided design
A2. the STL file
A3. the SLI file
A4. liquid-based rapid prototyping systems
A4a. the stereolithography (SLA) system
A4b. QuickCast
A4c. solid ground curing (SGC)
A4d. solid creation system (SCS)
A4e. solid object ultraviolet-laser
printer (SOUP)
A4f. soliform System
A4g. MEIKO system
A4h. E-Darts system

Section 11-How Products, Components
and Materials Are Made
(listed in alphabetical order)

ABS plastics
acetal plastics
acetate fibers and fabrics - See chapter 10,
acrylic plastics
advanced ceramic materials, (high technology ceramics),
air bags (for automotive passenger protection)
air conditioners
aircraft, (airplanes)
alcohol, denatured
alcohol, ethyl (ethanol)
alcoholic beverages
alcohol, isopropyl, (isopropanol or rubbing alcohol)
alcohol, methyl
aluminum foil
aluminum oxide - See abrasives.
anti-shrink fabrics (cloth)
apple sauce
asbestos / asbestos board
athletic shoes - See shoes, athletic.
automobile engines
automobile bodies
automobile chassis
automobile windshields particularly (modern ceramics), (fine ceramics)
bags, paper
bags, plastic
baking powder
ball bearings
ball grid arrays
ballpoint pens
balls, athletic
banknotes - See paper money.
bar codes
bathtubs, cast iron
bathtubs, plastic
bathtubs, steel
bats, baseball
batteries, flashlight (dry cells)
bauxite - See aluminum. '
beams, plastic, reinforced
bent wood components
bills, dollar, and other paper money -
blue jeans
boats, small, plastic
boats, fiberglass
bolts (machine screws, cap screws, set screws)
bond paper
bottled drinks
bottles, glass
bottles, plastic
bowling balls
bowls, glass
boxes, cormgated - See cartons, corrugated.
brake linings
breakfast cereal - See cereals, breakfast.
bulbs, light - See light bulbs.
bulletproof glass
bullet-proof vests
bullets (small arms ammunition or cartridges)
bungee cords
See paper money
cabinets, wood
candied fruit
canned food .
cans, metal
capacitors, electronic
carbon, activated
carbon black
carbon fibers
canying cases, power tools and instruments
cars - See automobiles.
cast iron
CDs - See compact discs.
cellular glass
cellulose acetate plastics
cement, portland
ceramic materials, advanced, (high technology ceramics),
cereals, breakfast
chairs, wooden .
cheese, Swiss
chewing gum
chipboard (wafer board)
chips, electronic
chokes, choke coils, inductors (electronic)
clad metals .
cloth, anti-shrink
cloth, knitted
cloth, non-woven
cloth, woven -
coal gas - See gas, manufactured.
coffee, decaffeinated
coffee, instant
coils, electrical
compact discs
composite structural lumber
concrete blocks
condensers, electronic
confectioner’s glaze - See candy..
contact lenses - See lenses, contact.
containers, plastic
cooking utensils
corn flakes - See cereals, breakfast.
corn, frozen
corn oil
corrugated cartons
cotton fabric
cottonseed oil - See margarine.
crayons (wax)
crepe fabric
crystal, lead glass
cups, plastic, disposable
cups, paper - See drinking cups, paper.
cut glass
diamonds, synthetic
diesel fuel - Seefuel. diesel.
digital video discs (DVDs)
dinner plates - See chinaware.
diodes and transistors
dishes, china - See chinaware.
dishes, glass
dishes, plastic
distilled spirits (distilled liquors)
downspouts, roof
drill bits
drinking cups, foam plastic
drinking glasses
drive screws - See screws.
drums, 55 gallon
dry cells - See batteries. flashlight.
dry ice
ductwork, steel
ductwork, plastic
DVD’s - See digital video discs.
dyed fabrics
edible oils - See oils, edible.
electrical wire - See wire, electrical.
electric light bulbs - See light bulbs and lights,
electric motors - See motors, electrical.
electric transformers
electrical wire - See wire. electrical.
enamel, vitreous (porcelain enamel)
enclosures, shower
engineered lumber
engine blocks
essential oils - See oils, essential.
etched glass
ethanol - See alcohol.
ethylene (ethene)
explosives - See dynamite.
fabrics, anti-shnnk - See 10F5a
fabrics, dyed - See IOGI.
fabrics, knitted - See IOA, IOB and 10D
fabrics, flocked - See 10F31.
fabrics, non-woven - See IOA, 10B and IOE.
fabrics, permanent press (wash and wear) - See 10F5b.
fabrics, printed - See 1CG2.
fabrics, stain release - See 10F5d.
fabrics, woven - See IOA, 10B and 1oC.
felt-tip marking pens - See marking pens, felt tipped.
fiberboard, low density (insulation board)
fiberboard, medium density
fiberglass insulation
fibers. glass
fibers, textile
fibers, optical
fibers, synthetic
fiber, vulcanized .
film, photographic
film plastic
finger-jointed lumber
fishing rods (poles)
flatware (tableware)(silverware)
flexible printed circuit boards
flocked fabrics
floor covering, vinyl - See vinyl flooring.
flour, bleached
flour, enriched
fluorescent lights
flux-cored wire solder
foam plastics - See 4C3.
food wrap, (“saran wrap”) - See saran.
footwear - See shoes.
Formica(r), Micarta(r) (rigid plastic laminates)
fragrances (perfumes)
freeze dried food .
frozen food
fuel, diesel
fuel, jet
furniture, upholstered
furniture, wooden
garlic - See spices.
garments (clothing)
gaskets, packings and seals
gas, manufactured
gas, liquified petroleum (LPG)
Gemstones - See Jewelry.
gin - See distilled spirirs.
ginger - See spices.
girders, steel
glass bottles - are made by glass blowing
glass, bulletproof (bullet resistant)
glass, cellular (foam glass)
glass ceramics
glass containers
glass, cut
glasses, drinking - See drinking glasses.
glasses, eye - See eyeglasses.
glass, etched
glass, pyrex - See cooking utensils.
glass fibers
glass filters
glass, foam (cellular glass)
glass jars
glass lenses - See lenses.
glass microspheres
glass, photosensitive
glass pitchers
glass, plate
glass, safety - See safety glass.
glass thermometers - See thermometers, glass.
glass tubing
glassware, laboratory (scientific)
glass vases
glass, window - See flat glass processes
glass wool - See glassjibers.
glazing compound - See putty.
glove compartments, automotive
glue - See adhesives.
golf balls
golf clubs
gravure printing plates .
grease, lubricating
grinding wheels
guitars, acoustic
gum, chewing - See chewing gum.
guns (firearms)
gutters, roof
gypsum plaster
gypsum board - See plasterboard.
handles, cooking utensils
handles, tool
hand tools - See hammers, pliers, wrenches,
screwdrivers and handles, tool.
hardboard (including tempered hardboard)
high-density polyethylene - See polyethylene,
hosiery (stockings and socks)
houses, prefabricated (modular houses)
housings, appliance
housings, business machine
hydraulic fluid
hydrochloric acid (HCI)
I-joists, wooden I.
ice, dry - See dry ice.
ice cream
ice skates
inductors (chokes, choke coils)
in-line skates
insecticides (pesticides)
instant coffee - See coffee, instant.
insulation board (low-density fiberboard)
integrated circuits
isopropyl alcohol (isopropanol or rubbing alcohol) -
See alcohol, isopmpyl.
jars, glass
jelly beans
jet engines (gas turbines)
jet fuel
keyboards, computer
keys for computer keyboards
knit fabrics
haft paper
lawn mowers
lead glass (lead crystal)
leather goods
lenses, contact
light bulbs, incandescent
lights, fluorescent - See fluorescent lights.
liquid crystal displays (LCDs)
locks, combination
low-density fiberboard
lubricating grease - See grease, lubricating.
lumber, pressure treated
maple syrup
marking pens, felt tipped
meat tenderizer
melamine plastic - See urea and melamine plastic.
medium density fiberboard
metal cans - See cans, metal.
metal powders - See powders, metal.
microspheres, glass
milk, condensed
milk, powdered
milk, skim
mineral wool (rock wool)
motors, electric
multiple chip packages (electronic)
musical instruments
musical instruments, brass
nail polish
napkins, paper
napped fabrics
natural gas
natural rubber
needlepoint carpets
needlepunch carpets
neon signs
nitrile rubber
no-clean solder flux
non-woven fabric
nuclear power
numerical controls
nutmeg - See spices.
nuts, screw
oils, edible
oils, essential
oil, fuel (furnace oil)
oil, lubricating
oils, vegetable - See oils, edible: olive oil: oils, essential
olive oil
olives, green
optical glass fibers
optical lenses - See lenses.
orange juice
oriented strand board (OSB)
packages, blister
paint brushes - See brushes.
paint removers (paint strippers)
pallets, plastic
pallets, wood
pans, cooking - See cooking utensils.
paper, bond
paper clips
paper hankerchiefs
paper, haft
paper money
paper, rag (rag bond)
paper, sanitary
paper towels
particle board
partition glass
patterns for casting - See 1B7.
peanut butter
pencils, lead
pens, ball point - See ballpoint pens.
pepper - See spices.
permanent press fabrics - See 1 OF5b.
pesticides - See insecticides.
petroleum jelly (petrolatum, Vaseline)
phenolic plastics
photographic film - See film. photographic.
pickles - See 12J.
pig iron
pile rugs (tufted rugs) - See 1012.
pipe, plastic - See tubing, plastic.
pipe and tubing,metal
pipe, cast - See 1El.
pipe, welded - See pipe and tubing, metal above.
plaster - See gypsum plaster.
plasterboard, gypsum board, wallboard and drywall
plastic film
plastic laminates, rigid (“Formica” or “Micarta”)
plastic wood, wood filler
plate glass
playground equipment
polycarbonate plastic, PC
polyester plastic
polyethylene plastic, PE
polyethylene plastic, high-density, HDPE
polyethylene plastic, linear, low density, LLDPE
polyethylene plastic, low-density, LDPE
polyethylene plastic, ultra-high-molecular-w Spider Optimizer

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