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Engineering Physical Metallurgy

Engineering Materials

Engineering Physical Metallurgy
Profesor Y. Lakhtin
474 Pages

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Engineering Physical Metallurgy


This book should be of particular aid to new engineering personnel, only recently engaged in industry, in coordinating their theoretical knowledge with the actual engineering practice they encounter and should also help them to better understand special treatises on physical metallurgy and heat treatment. More experienced engineers may use it to renew their theoretical knowledge on the subject.

The book may be expediently employed as supplementary reading by students of metallurgical and mechanical engineering institutes and technical schools attending courses in general physical metallurgy.

One aim of the author was to elucidate the latest developments made in engineering physical metallurgy, both in the Soviet Union and in other countries. Principal attention is given to the physical nature of the phenomena described.

The author does not claim to have made a complete exposition of all the aspects of physical metallurgy. His intention was merely to set forth the fundamentals of physical metallurgy and heat treatment of steel, cast iron, and nonferrous metals in a consecutive and easily understandable manner.


List of Symbols
Chapter 1. Crystal Structure of Metals
1-1. Atomic Structure of Metals .
1-2. Allotropy
1-3. Crystallographic isolation or Atomic Planes
1-4. The Structures of Actual :Metal Crystals
1-5. Properties of Metals
Chapter 2. Solidification and Metal Ingot Structure
2-1. Solidification of Metals
2-2. Metal Ingot Structure.
Chapter 3. Plastic Deformation and Recystallisalion in Metals
3-1. Plastic Deformation
3-2. Recovery and Hecryslallisation
Chapter 4. Methods for Studying Metal Structure
4-1. Macrostructure (Macrography)
4-2. Microstructure (Micrography)
4-3. X-Ray Analysis
4-4. Physical Methods for Studying and Inspection or Metals and Alloys
Chapter 5. The Mechanical Properties of Metals
5-1. Mechanical Testing of Metals
5-2. Tension Tests
5-3. Hardness Test
5-4. Impact Tests
5-5. Fatigue Tests
5-6. Tests at Elevated Temperatures 2
5-7. Fabrication Tests
Chapter 6. Binary Alloys.
6-1. General Principles or Phase Transformations in Alloys6
6-2. The Phase Equilibrium Diagrams
6-3. Equilibrium Diagram of a lliuary System in Which the Components Form a Mechanical Mixture ol Crystals ia the Solid State and Are Completely Mutually Soluble in the Liquid State
6-4. Equilibrium Diagram of a System Whose Components Are Mutually Soluble in Both the Liquid and Solid Slates
6-5. Equilibrium Diagram of a System in Which the Components Have Unlimited Solubility in the Liquid State and Form Chemical Compounds upon Solidification
6-6. Equilibrium Diagram of a System Whose Components Are Subject to Allotropic Transformations
6-7. Diagrams of Ternary Systems
Chapter 7. The Iron-Carbon Equilibrium Diagram
7-1. Iron
7-2. The Iron-Carbon Equilibrium Diagram
Chapter 8. Phase Transformations in the Iron-Carbon System
8-1. Formation of Austenite (Transformations That Occur in Heating Sleel)
8-2 Austenite Grain Growth in Heating
8-3 Transformation of Austenite into Pearlite (Isothermal Decomposition of Austenite) . Transformation of Austenite upon Continuous Cooling Martensitic Transformation in Steel Tempering of Steel Ageing
Chapter 9. Heat Treatment of Steel
9-1. Annealing of Steel
9-2. Normalising of Steel
9-3. Hardening of Steel
9-4. Tempering of Steel
9-5. Sub-Zero Treatment of Steel
9-6. Defects Due to Heat Treatment of Steels
Chapter 10. Surface Hardening of Steel
10-1. High-Frequency Induction Hardening
10-2. Hardening with Electric Contact Resistance Heating
10-3. Hardening with Electrolyti~ Heating
10-4. Oxyacetylene Flume Hardemng
Chapter 11. Chemical Heat Treatnwnt of Steel (Case-Hardening)
11-1. Physical Principles Involved in Chemical Heat Treatment
11-2. Carburising of Steel
11-3. Nitriding of Steel
11-4. Cyaniding and Carbonitriding of Steel
11-5. Di!Tusion Coatings
Chapter 12. Minm· ConstilueRts and Alloying Elements in Steel
12-1. E!Tects Produced by the Minor Constituents
12-2. Distribution of Alloying Elements in Steel
12-3. E!Tects of the Alloying Elements on·· Phase Transformations in Steel
12-4. Structural Classes of Alloy Steels
Chapter 13. Steel
13-i. General Classification
13-2. Ordinary and Improved Carbon Structural Steels
13-3. Quality Carbon Structural Sleels
13-4. Carbon Steels for castings
13-5. Free Cutting Steels
13-6. Low-Alloy Constructional Steels
13-7. Alloy Structural Steels
13-8. Tool Steels
13-10. Stainless and Acid-Resistant Steels
13-11. Scale-Resistant and Heat-Resistant Steels and Alloys
13-12. Magnetic Steels and Alloys
13-13. Alloys with Definite Expansion and Elasticity Properties
Chapter 14. Cast Iron and lis Heat Treatment
14-1. Grey Cast Iron
14-2. Heat Treatment of Cast Iron
14-3. Malleable Cast Iron
Chapter 15. Copper and Its Alloys
15-1. Copper
15-2. Brasses
15-3. Bronzes
Chapter 16. Nickel and Its Alloys
Chapter 17. Aluminium and lis Alloys
17-1. Aluminium
17-2. Classification of Aluminium Alloys
17-3. Non-Heat-Treatable Wrought Aluminium Alloys
17-4. Heat-Treatable Wrought Aluminium Alloys
17-5. Aluminium-Base Casting Alloys Chapter
18. Magnesium Alloys
18-1. Magnesium
18-2. Magnesium Alloys
Chapter 19. Titanium and Its Alloys
Chapter 20. Zinc, Lead, Tin and Their Alloys
20-1. Zinc and Its Alloys
20-2. Lead and Its Alloys
20-3. Tin and Its Alloys
Chapter 21. Babbitts (Antifriction Alloys
Chapter 22. Rare Metals and Their Alloys

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